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Archive:Development/Tutorials/Using KXmlGuiWindow (zh TW)


Development/Tutorials/Using_KXmlGuiWindow

Template:TutorialBrowser (zh TW)

摘要

本教學承接上一講第一個程式教學,進一步介紹 KXmlGuiWindow 類別的使用。

在上一講中,程式只是彈出了一個對話框。在本講中,我們要讓我們的程式具備更加實際功能。

Introtokdetutorial2.png

KXmlGuiWindow

KXmlGuiWindow 提供完整的主視窗檢視包含選單列、工具列、狀態列和中央的主區域。大多數KDE應用程式會衍生此類別,因為它提供了一個簡單的方法,透過XML檔案定義選單和工具列的排版(這種技術稱為XMLGUI)。雖然我們不會使用 XMLGUI 在教學中,但將來我們會使用到它。

為了使用 KXmlGuiWindow,我們必須對它子類別化。因此,我們創建兩個檔案, mainwindow.cppmainwindow.h 放置我們的程式碼。

mainwindow.h

  1. ifndef MAINWINDOW_H
  2. define MAINWINDOW_H
  1. include <KXmlGuiWindow>
  2. include <KTextEdit>

class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow {

 public:
   MainWindow(QWidget *parent=0);
 private:
   KTextEdit* textArea;

};

  1. endif

First we Subclass KXmlGuiWindow on line 7 with class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow.

Then we declare the constructor with MainWindow(QWidget *parent=0);.

And finally we declare a pointer to the object that will make up the bulk of our program. KTextEdit is a generic richtext editor with some KDE niceties like cursor auto-hiding.

mainwindow.cpp

  1. include "mainwindow.h"

MainWindow::MainWindow(QWidget *parent) : KXmlGuiWindow(parent) {

 textArea = new KTextEdit();
 setCentralWidget(textArea);
 setupGUI();

} First, of course, on line 1 we have to include the header file containing the class declaration.

On line 5, we initialise our text editor with an object. Then on line 6 we use KXmlGuiWindow's built-in setCentralWidget() function which tells the KXmlGuiWindow what should appear in the central section of the window.

Finally, KXmlGuiWindow::setupGUI() is called which does a lot of behind-the-scenes stuff and creates the default menu bars (Settings, Help).

回到 main.cpp

In order to actually run this window, we need to add a few lines in main.cpp:

main.cpp

  1. include <KApplication>
  2. include <KAboutData>
  3. include <KCmdLineArgs>
  4. include <KLocale>
  1. include "mainwindow.h"

int main (int argc, char *argv[]) {

 KAboutData aboutData( "tutorial2", 0,
     ki18n("Tutorial 2"), "1.0",
     ki18n("A simple text area"),
     KAboutData::License_GPL,
     ki18n("Copyright (c) 2007 Developer") );
 KCmdLineArgs::init( argc, argv, &aboutData );
 
 KApplication app;

 MainWindow* window = new MainWindow();
 window->show();
 return app.exec();

} The only new lines here (compared to Tutorial 1) are 5, 18 and 19. On line 18, we create our MainWindow object and then on line 19, we display it.

CMake

The best way to build the program is to use CMake. All that's changed since tutorial 1 is that mainwindow.cpp has been added to the sources list and any tutorial1 has become tutorial2.

CMakeLists.txt

project (tutorial2)

find_package(KDE4 REQUIRED) include_directories(${KDE4_INCLUDES})

set(tutorial2_SRCS

 main.cpp
 mainwindow.cpp

)

kde4_add_executable(tutorial2 ${tutorial2_SRCS}) target_link_libraries(tutorial2 ${KDE4_KDEUI_LIBS})

Compile it

To compile, link and run it, use:

mkdir build && cd build
cmake ..
make
./tutorial2

繼續前進

現在你可以開始學習下一課:使用 KActions


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