Icons are pictorial representations of functions and objects, important not only for aesthetic reasons as part of the visual identity of a program, but also for utilitarian reasons as shorthand for conveying meaning that users perceive almost instantaneously. Well-designed icons improve the visual communication and strongly impact users' overall impression of visual design. Last but not least, icons are space-saving and improve usability by making programs, objects, and actions easier to identify, learn.
- Create icons with varying sizes in respect to the level of design. Simply scaling down (or up) does not work.
- Design icons with a small number of metaphors .
- Apply metaphors only once (e.g. do not use a brush twice for different options).
- Rethink conventionally used metaphors (e.g. the clipboard icon of paste).
- Antiquated metaphors might work well (e.g. a floppy is not necessarily outdated to represent save).
- Adjust the degree of abstractness according to familiarity of the metaphor.
- Avoid using arrows, they are unspecific.
- Define metaphors independent from language and culture.
- Make icons simple.
- Colorize icons according to the meaning but in respect to application’s colors.
- Don’t use animated icons.
- Test your icon set on strength of association, discriminatory power, conspicuousness, and, if applicable, on accessibility.