Difference between revisions of "Projects/Nepomuk/GraphConcepts"

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Nepomuk is based on the Semantic Web, and even though the Semantic Web is largely advertised as a triple store, Nepomuk is NOT a triple store. We in fact store quadruples -> <code>Subject</code> - <code>Predicate</code> - <code>Object</code> - <code>Graph</code>. The <code>Graph</code> part of these quadruples is always automatically managed by Nepomuk. Clients rarely (if ever) need to care about the graph.
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== The Semantic Web - with quadruples ==
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'''Nepomuk''' is based on the Semantic Web, and even though the Semantic Web is largely advertised as a triple store, Nepomuk is NOT a triple store. We in fact store quadruples -> <tt>Subject - Predicate - Object - Graph</tt>. The <tt>Graph</tt> part of these quadruples is always automatically managed by Nepomuk. Clients rarely (if ever) need to care about the graph.
  
 
However, if you still want to know why they are present. Read on.
 
However, if you still want to know why they are present. Read on.
  
The <code>graph</code> is also called the context of the statement. It is used to store some information about each triple
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The <tt>graph</tt> is also called the context of the statement. It is used to store some information about each triple
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== Graph Naming ==
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Every graph in '''Nepomuk''' is given a unique uri which is of the form <tt>nepomuk:/ctx/uuid</tt>. The <tt>ctx</tt> over here is an abbreviation for context.
  
= Graph Naming =
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== Graph Creation ==
Every graph in Nepomuk is given a unique uri which is of the form <code>nepomuk:/ctx/uuid</code>. The <tt>ctx</tt> over here is an abbreviation for context.
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= Graph Creation =
 
 
The first obvious question is - When are graphs created? Is everything just added into one big graph?
 
The first obvious question is - When are graphs created? Is everything just added into one big graph?
  
Nepomuk works by creating new graphs for each atomic operation. These operations are the ones defined by the [http://api.kde.org/4.x-api/kdelibs-apidocs/nepomuk-core/html/datamanagement_8h.html DataManagement functions] -
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'''Nepomuk''' works by creating new graphs for each atomic operation. These operations are the ones defined by the [http://api.kde.org/4.x-api/kdelibs-apidocs/nepomuk-core/html/datamanagement_8h.html DataManagement functions] -
  
 
* [http://api.kde.org/4.x-api/kdelibs-apidocs/nepomuk-core/html/group__nepomuk__datamanagement.html#gafb8a64e1fb9e8339ff87be1b7a370a57 addProperty]
 
* [http://api.kde.org/4.x-api/kdelibs-apidocs/nepomuk-core/html/group__nepomuk__datamanagement.html#gafb8a64e1fb9e8339ff87be1b7a370a57 addProperty]
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Each time any of these operations is called and new data is being pushed, a new graph with the current date time is created.
 
Each time any of these operations is called and new data is being pushed, a new graph with the current date time is created.
  
= Graph contents =
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== Graph contents ==
Graphs in Nepomuk store the following information -
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Graphs in '''Nepomuk''' store the following information -
  
 
* Graph Type
 
* Graph Type
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The <code>nao:created</code> and <code>nao:lastModified</code> properties are identical to those used in resources. Except for the fact that graphs are generally never modified. They are only created or destroyed.
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The <tt>nao:created</tt> and <tt>nao:lastModified</tt> properties are identical to those used in resources. Except for the fact that graphs are generally never modified. They are only created or destroyed.
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=== Graph Type ===
  
== Graph Type ==
 
 
Each graph has a type which depends on the type of data it holds. The 3 most commonly used types are -
 
Each graph has a type which depends on the type of data it holds. The 3 most commonly used types are -
* <code>nrl:Ontology</code> - Used to hold ontology data.
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* <tt>nrl:Ontology</tt> - Used to hold ontology data.
* <code>nrl:InstanceBase</code> - Used for normal data
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* <tt>nrl:InstanceBase</tt> - Used for normal data
* <code>nrl:DiscardableInstanceBase</code> - Used for data which can be reproduced and should not be backed up. This type is generally reserved for data created during indexing of files.
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* <tt>nrl:DiscardableInstanceBase</tt> - Used for data which can be reproduced and should not be backed up. This type is generally reserved for data created during indexing of files.
  
== Agents ==
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=== Agents ===
  
Each graph contains a property called <code>nao:maintainedBy</code> which specifies which application created that data -
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Each graph contains a property called <tt>nao:maintainedBy</tt> which specifies which application created that data -
  
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="text">
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="text">
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Each application is represented as a <code>nao:Agent</code> with the application name specified as the nao:identifier. This name is automatically determined via <code>KComponentData</code> and can be spoofed. Security was not one of our concerns.
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Each application is represented as a <tt>nao:Agent</tt> with the application name specified as the nao:identifier. This name is automatically determined via <tt>KComponentData</tt> and can be spoofed. Security was not one of our concerns.
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Each triple may be maintained by a number of different applications. This information is valuable for the advanced DataManagement functions such as [http://api.kde.org/4.x-api/kdelibs-apidocs/nepomuk-core/html/group__nepomuk__datamanagement.html#ga0fbf22be4b581afd0b5bcd1f203e934f <tt>removeDataByApplication</tt>].
  
Each triple may be maintained by a number of different applications. This information is valuable for the advanced DataManagement functions such as [http://api.kde.org/4.x-api/kdelibs-apidocs/nepomuk-core/html/group__nepomuk__datamanagement.html#ga0fbf22be4b581afd0b5bcd1f203e934f <code>removeDataByApplication</code>].
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[[Category:Documentation]]
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[[Category:Development]]
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[[Category:Tutorials]]

Latest revision as of 12:34, 9 February 2018

The Semantic Web - with quadruples

Nepomuk is based on the Semantic Web, and even though the Semantic Web is largely advertised as a triple store, Nepomuk is NOT a triple store. We in fact store quadruples -> Subject - Predicate - Object - Graph. The Graph part of these quadruples is always automatically managed by Nepomuk. Clients rarely (if ever) need to care about the graph.

However, if you still want to know why they are present. Read on.

The graph is also called the context of the statement. It is used to store some information about each triple

Graph Naming

Every graph in Nepomuk is given a unique uri which is of the form nepomuk:/ctx/uuid. The ctx over here is an abbreviation for context.

Graph Creation

The first obvious question is - When are graphs created? Is everything just added into one big graph?

Nepomuk works by creating new graphs for each atomic operation. These operations are the ones defined by the DataManagement functions -


Each time any of these operations is called and new data is being pushed, a new graph with the current date time is created.

Graph contents

Graphs in Nepomuk store the following information -

  • Graph Type
  • Creation Date
  • Modification Date
  • Graph Maintainer


Example -

<nepomuk:/ctx/c4d93812-7d8c-4c8f-b8a7-e1d4dbc5fed5>
        rdf:type                nrl:InstanceBase
        nao:created             2011-07-30T11:34:19.587Z
        nao:modified            2011-07-30T11:34:19.587Z
        nao:maintainedBy        nepomuk:/res/e2eb2efb-14ee-4038-ac24-698f916289b0


The nao:created and nao:lastModified properties are identical to those used in resources. Except for the fact that graphs are generally never modified. They are only created or destroyed.

Graph Type

Each graph has a type which depends on the type of data it holds. The 3 most commonly used types are -

  • nrl:Ontology - Used to hold ontology data.
  • nrl:InstanceBase - Used for normal data
  • nrl:DiscardableInstanceBase - Used for data which can be reproduced and should not be backed up. This type is generally reserved for data created during indexing of files.

Agents

Each graph contains a property called nao:maintainedBy which specifies which application created that data -

<nepomuk:/ctx/c4d93812-7d8c-4c8f-b8a7-e1d4dbc5fed5>
        rdf:type                nrl:DiscardableInstanceBase
        nao:created             2011-07-30T11:34:19.587Z
        nao:modified            2011-07-30T11:34:19.587Z
        nao:maintainedBy        nepomuk:/res/e2eb2efb-14ee-4038-ac24-698f916289b0

<nepomuk:/res/e2eb2efb-14ee-4038-ac24-698f916289b0>
        rdf:type                nao:Agent
        rdf:type                rdfs:Resource
        nao:identifier          nepomukindexer


Each application is represented as a nao:Agent with the application name specified as the nao:identifier. This name is automatically determined via KComponentData and can be spoofed. Security was not one of our concerns.

Each triple may be maintained by a number of different applications. This information is valuable for the advanced DataManagement functions such as removeDataByApplication.


This page was last modified on 9 February 2018, at 12:34. Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 4.0 unless otherwise noted.