Technically marble's current source code from the master development branch has support for vector tiles built-in already. However by default we don't display the map theme required to enjoy this vector rendering. In order to enable the vector map theme you need to pass the cmake config option
So in order to compile Marble with vector tile support just compile it as described here:
and just add the config option above, e.g.
cmake -DEXPERIMENTAL_VECTOR_TILING=ON ~/marble/sources
Once you completed compilation and installation you can zoom into certain selected cities (e.g. San Francisco and New York). And starting at level 13 you will see the vector tiles. At level 17 it should look about like this:
Note that in order to get best performance it's recommended to turn off the bitmap backdrop. You can do this by going into the legend and turning off the checkbox "OSM Bitmap Tiles" as visible in the screenshot above. You can keep the bitmap tiles in order to find open issues for debugging.