Localization (ru)

Jump to: navigation, search


Добро пожаловать, путник, в страну Локализации KDE! Вздохни поглубже и начнем...

Welcome, adventurer, to the universe of KDE localization! Brought along a generous reserve of breathing air?

noframe
 
Warning
Эта подборка статей претендует на то, чтобы стать основным источником информации по локализации KDE, но пока далека от этого. В настоящее время более авторитетным источником информации (хотя и частями устаревшим) по этой теме является KDE Translation Howto.


Contents

Вступление

Эта страница - подборка статей по локализации KDE. Представленные статьи раскрывают детали, дают советы и удовлетворяют любопытство в отношении локализации KDE. Подборка сделана для "всех": от новичков в локализации свободного ПО до ветеранов-переводчиков KDE, интересующихся новыми разработками.

Для достижения этой цели, статьи организованы нелинейно. Когда вы читаете книгу, в предисловии вы часто можете найти инструкции автора, у какой последовательности следует её читать: какие главы связаны друг с другом, какие -- нет; какие главы обязательны к прочтению для понимания остальной части книги, а какие можно и пропустить. Также и со статьями, представленными здесь, только здесь всё более "экстремально", со множеством мест откуда и докуда читать, в зависимости от индивидуальных интересов.

На данный момент подборка содержит 3 ветви статей:

Принципы 
Обзоры общих принципов локализации свободного ПО и KDE в частности. Основные механизмы и форматы, продвинутые технические возможности, процессы организации и коммуникации.
Инструменты 
Описания инструментов, которые могут упростить процесс локализации. От скриптов до полноценных GUI-приложений. Их возможности в поддержке принципов локализации.
Методы работы 
Иструкции и описания по тому как проводить локализацию KDE. Что необходимо знать в каких случаях, и какие инструменты можно применить.
Ktip.png
 
Tip
If you are fresh in the trade, do not feel intimidated by the expanse. Not even crack KDE translators are supposed to be intimately acquainted with, or need all this stuff. Instead, if you are eager to start churning out results, head to the rookie workflow and follow the leads therein.


На заметку редактирующим

Очень важно правильно расставить акценты и донести наиболее важную информацию до сообщества переводчиков. Читатель не должен задумываться о местной организации перевода KDE, что за инструменты используют переводчики и каковы основные принципы KDE и их реализация.

Хотя это по большей части KDE-ориентированный ресурс, было бы полезно приводить примеры того, как обрабатываются некоторые элементы вне KDE. Благодаря контрастам и сравнениям, читатель может лучше понять представленный материал. Это также может помочь тем, кто уже знаком с другими средами локализации.

Принципы

Хорошо это или плохо, нет недостатка в инструментарии, форматах и других малопонятных вещах, с которыми может столкнуться переводчик KDE на своем пути.

For better or for worse, there is no lack of frameworks, formats, procedures and other vague notions that a KDE translator may stumble upon along the way. They may be a burden of sorts -- many things to keep in mind -- but also a source of fun, challenge, and deep satisfaction when creatively combined towards great efficiency of everyday work and mirror-perfect polish of the final output. Thus, expect the articles here not to withold much.

Text Encoding
Text is the most basic object of localization. However, to handle it at low level -- to encode text -- such that languages of the world are smoothly supported, was historically not trivial. Read about the current standards, proper setups and errors due to text encoding which may pop up.
Формат PO-файлов
The PO format is the mainstay of free software translation. Ragardless of the actual workflows and tools used, translators should maintain a good measure of familiarity with the underlying PO format. This article thoroughly describes the elements of the PO format and various uses of PO catalog files which embody it.
XML Markup
Parts of text are sometimes presented to the user in special way: bold or italic, title sized, etc. XML-like text markup is a popular way of specifying such presentation, and translators will frequently find it embedded in the source texts. This article deals with XML markup from translators' viewpoint.
Version Control
KDE evolves by integrating a lot of work contributed by a lot of people scattered around the planet, and that along parallel lines of development. To prevent information collapse into the gravity well of unhindered creativity, programmers employ version control systems -- and so do the translators.
Rings of Communication
Translators have many communication outlets at their disposal. Beyond the circle of one's own language team, translators from other teams and programmers are orbiting close at reach. Find out which issues are best dealt with at which level, for the time spent in constructive discussion to achieve most positive impact.
Automatic Translation Assists
Automatic assists help translators to speed up the work, avoid common errors, and achieve consistency in style and terminology. They may be provided as standalone tools, or as features of specialized translation tools. These assists include spell checkers, glossaries, translation memories, etc.
Collecting and Using Statistics
Statistics provide overall indicators of the past localization progress, and means to extrapolate for the future. However, as always with statistics, for meaningful conclusions they should be used with care. Read about the sources of statistics, things to count, and effort estimates.
Translating Documentation
Compared to localizing application interfaces, translating their documentation both throws new elements into the fray, and casts others in a different light. The need to keep the interfaces and documentation in sync, demands another layer of attention. This article covers those peculiarities.
Writing Systems Distinctions
User interfaces have been historically centered and developed around alphabetic writing system, using Latin alphabet, and written from left to right. Drastic changes to any of these assumptions, such as right to left writing or using ideographs instead of alphabet, requires some consideration.
Language/Country Specific Formats
Applications frequently process and display pieces of information which, while universal in concept, are presented differently accros cultures: time and dates, numbers, calendars, and so on. KDE apps gracefully handle such differences, relying on the language/country-based specifications in the KDE core.
Special Entries in Translation Catalogs
Most messages in translation catalogs are ordinary text intended for the user, but some are not. Programmers may use messages which let translators choose behavior for their language, add language-specific data, or state translation credits. Such special entries typically found in KDE catalogs are described here.
Translation Scripting with Transcript
Traditional UI translation frameworks are based on English as the pivotal language. This frequently leads to technical problems in target languages, where translators may be forced to choose between bad and worse. To alleviate such issues, KDE provides a way to act on translation at runtime -- the Transcript engine.
Localizing Non-Text Resources
While the first thought of localization is that of text translation, text is not the sole resource for localization. Any content presented to the user -- an icon, image, sound -- may require localization in certain cultural contexts. Learn how to localize non-text resources in KDE as the need arises.

Инструменты

Существует большое количество инструментов для работы с локализацией. Некоторые из них достаточно общие, другие же тесно связанны именно с процессом локализации KDE. Естественно все они предоставляют различные возможности. У общих инструментов как правило есть собственная документация, где объяснено каким образом они связаны с концепциями и процессами, используемыми в KDE. Для KDE-специфичных инструментов это объяснено естесвенно более подробно (иногда прямо тут же, в KDE wiki).


Gettext Tools
GNU Gettext is the de-facto referent implementation of the PO format. It is used to extract templates from the code and update PO catalogs, and has many tools for processing PO files. Its compiler of PO format into binary format for application use, is the final arbiter of validity of a PO file.
Lokalize
Lokalize is a computer-aided translation (CAT) tool, a full-featured GUI application for translators, written from scratch using KDE4 framework. Aside from basic editing of PO files with nifty auxiliary details, it integrates support for glossary, translation memory, diff-modes for QA, project managing, etc.
Emacs & Vim
Emacs and Vim are ubiquitous Unix text editors, in continuous use and development from times immemorial. Both very different from today's typical editors, as well as between each other, powerfull and extendable, they have been pressed into many roles. One is power-assisted editing of PO files.
Translate Toolkit
Translate Toolkit is a host of command-line utilities, written mostly in Python, that expands and extends on Gettext's tools. They provide advanced search, selection and merging of PO files, and environment-specific validity checks. Also included are converters between various non-PO formats.
Subversion
Subversion, SVN for short, is the version control system currently used by the KDE project as whole. Same as the code, KDE localization data are stored in the central SVN repository. This article describes the use cases of Subversion for translators, as well as repository organization of localized data.
Pology
Pology is a Python-based framework for quick and robust assembly of "field" scripts for processing PO files, to operate in a version-controlled environment with numerous catalogs. As of yet it is experimental, living in KDE repository only, but with an array of already applicable tools.
Lbundle Checker
For text resources translated through PO files there are well-established means of tracking changes as the underling code evolves. This is the script to provide a degree of such support for localized non-text resources, when organized as localization bundles.
Miscellaneous Scripts
KDE repository contains many standalone scripts to check and process localized data, of various degrees of specificity -- many even tied to the exact repository organization. Collected here are the descriptions of such scripts which may be generally useful to translators.

Рабочий процесс

Нет одного единого способа принимать участие в локализации KDE. Вкладчики будут отличаться количеством переведенного материала и направленностью усилий, которые они будут прилагать. Переведенные статьи должны дать представление об активных участниках. Тут приведены также технические и организационные подробности, которые имеют влияние на ежедневный рабочий процесс переводчика.


Rookie Translator
This is your first forray into localization and you're looking for the sign saying "Don't Panic", in large friendly letters? Find about the essential prerequisites to start translating early, but productively.
Seasoned Translator
Translators that have surmounted the difficulties and acquired the concepts and tools for the work to become daily routine, may start looking into new directions. How to better coordinate effort, cooperate with other language teams, test the localization quality in live environment, etc.
Language Coordinator
Each language team in KDE needs one or few persons tasked additionally to their basic work on localization. They take care that the team effort progresses smoothly, and voice their teams in global matters. Language coordinators have write-access to KDE repository, and the responsibility to boot.
Global Coordinator
While the cooperation can and does take place between translators from different language teams, more focused attention is needed to handle some global issues. To that end, some translators engage in maintenance tasks on wider scale, and one of them is appointed the KDE Localization Coordinator.
Introducing a New Language
Great many languages are already being localized into within KDE project. Sometimes, however, a new language is to be introduced, which requires coordination between its translators and core KDE team. Also, to ship a language as part of official KDE release, some essentials must be satisfied.
Repository Automation
Daily in the KDE repository, the lumbering machinery scrutinizes code, updates translations to reflect changes, performs checks, serving the results to translators. Learn to follow its hum, and know where to grease when the gears clog.
Translating in Summit
Handling two branches for translation, stable and trunk, can be tedious. Porting fixes from one to another branch, making sure team members work on correct branch, etc. Especially so when non-core modules are considered, like extragear. Read about one possibility to curb this overhead.

This page was last modified on 18 July 2012, at 13:29. This page has been accessed 4,436 times. Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 3.0 as well as the GNU Free Documentation License 1.2.
KDE® and the K Desktop Environment® logo are registered trademarks of KDE e.V.Legal