开发/常见问题/通用问题

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我想要开发新的应用程序。有什么建议?

我们都同意需要编写大量的 KDE 应用程序。但同时也有很多现有的 KDE 应用程序需要你的帮助。

如果你想了解一下目前需要帮忙的地方,请看本页面

在开始新的应用程序前,检查 KDE-Apps.org 上现有的应用程序,并在 kde-devel 邮件列表中进行咨询,看看是否有人已经开始类似的项目。

我是开发人员,我要如何帮助 KDE 呢?

尽管 Calligra 和 KDevelop 受到高度赞赏,它们只有极少数开发者,所以你可以从这里开始。提供帮助并不仅仅体现在加入 KDE 工作空间或 KDE 平台库的开发。KDE 是高度模块化的,所以你不必了解整个系统就能每次改善某个独立的方面。

您也可以在 kde-devel 邮件列表问问是否有人需要协助。使用最新版 KDE 并且关注需要的东西。一个主题生成器?一个 konsole 计划编辑器?改善一个游戏?这些项目总是有小功能缺失。去实现它吧!

你是熟悉或关注于特定领域吗?查看是否有相关的应用程序,可以获得您的帮助。或者自己写一个。KDE 需要更多非 geek 导向的应用程序。

我不是开发者,我要怎样帮忙

有大量不需要开发技术的任务。撰写应用程序评论帮助 KDE 推广(请见 kde-promo 邮件列表),帮助文件团队(请见 i18n.kde.org/doc),协助翻译(请见 i18n.kde.org),帮助过滤新增的 bug(请见 bugs.kde.org)等。

在哪里可以找到 Konqi 龙的图像?

一些人需要的 Konqi 龙 SDK 在 ftp.kde.org/pub/kde/devel/konqi_sdk.tar.bz2
在这个网站还未停止更新前,它被上传到 artist.kde.org

将来的图像在 KDE merchandise.

贡献 KDE 需要什么样的水平?我应该学习什么?阅读什么?

您需要了解 C++。阅读 Qt 的教学和浏览 Qt 的文件来熟悉 Qt。然后阅读 KDE 的教学和浏览架构和文件。您还可以阅读 KDE 的书籍。但你不用熟悉整个 KDE 的架构以成为 KDE 开发者。使用 KDE 的技术是很容易的,所以集中在你真正需要的,你可以以后再学习其他部分。KDE 用户基地(本站)doc.qt.nokia.com (也在您的 $QTDIR/doc/html) 是宝贵的资源,要善用它们。然后浏览原始码,寻找范例目录,看看其他应用程序的写法。读写程序代码是最好的学习方法。

如何从 KDE git 或 SVN 仓库获取 KDE 软件?

参阅开始页面的"从源代码编译和运行KDE软件"。

可以在线访问 KDE 源码吗?

可以

我的 .subversion/config 应该怎样配置?

[miscellany]
global-ignores = *.moc *.moc.cc *.moc.cpp config.log config.status \
config.cache *.gmo .deps .libs SunWS_cache *.lo *.la *.rpo *.la.closure \
*_la_closure.cpp *_la_closure.cc *_la_closure.cxx *.all_cc.cc *.all_cpp.cpp \
*.all_C.C *.all_cxx.cxx *_meta_unload.cc *_meta_unload.h *_meta_unload.cpp \
*_meta_unload.C *_meta_unload.cxx index.cache.bz2 .memdump Makefile.rules.in \
Makefile.calls.in Makefile.rules Makefile.calls autom4te.cache *.kidl \
*.o *.lo *.la #*# .*.rej *.rej *.pyc

让 svn diff 忽略空白并打印函数名:

[helpers]
diff-cmd = /usr/local/bin/_svndiff

And to make svn diff ignore whitespace, and print function names:

[helpers]
diff-cmd = /usr/local/bin/_svndiff

/usr/local/bin/_svndiff 中加入:

#!/bin/sh
exec /usr/bin/diff -b -u -p "$@"

#!/bin/sh
exec /usr/bin/diff -b -u -p "$@"

不要忘了将 /usr/local/bin/_svndiff 设置为可执行。

我想将应用程序加到 KDE

有三个要求:

  • 您的应用程序必须使用最新版本的 KDE 编译(SVN trunk)。
  • 您的应用程序必须是稳定的。
  • 您的应用程序必须得到维护。你可能会得到大量的 bug 报告和愿望。人们期待你修复 bug 和实现有意义的愿望。

在 KDE 内部还是外部进行开发比较好?

核心开发者 Waldo Bastian 在邮件中解释:

成为 KDE 的一份子,意味着你必须与他人一起工作。合作带来了好处,但同时也带来了责任。 </span>
其中一些的优点是:你的程序代码会出现在所有发行版、人们可能会解决您的 bug、你可以得到免费的翻译和文件、你会得到大量的 bug 报告。
另一方面是缺点和责任:你将不得不为你的工作,与其他开发者沟通、其他人可能更改您的程序代码、你必须尊重发行冻结、你会得到极多的 bug 报告,人们期望你解决这些问题以及(what are they smoking?)维护你的程序代码。 你不能只选择优点,而忽略了随之而来的责任,它们是完整一体的,两者都要或都没有。
一般来说,应该是软件的作者,选择把他的应用程序放进KDE的软件仓库。我们通常只有在作者发出请求时才把软件放在 KDE 仓库。反过来说,如果作者希望在外部开发他的应用程序,是他的权利。除非是应用程序的工作团队分裂,否则因为开发方式改变而 fork 应用程序是没有任何意义的。
...您把程序代码以开源授权放在 KDE 仓库就相当于同意整个世界,特别是KDE,使用您的程序代码。KDE 将斟酌使用此权利,以保护 KDE 的利益,即使违背作者当下的意愿。

知道这个是重要的,但不要害怕。通常,事情进展得很好。在五年里,这仅仅发生了一次:一个开发者把他的作品保留在 KDE 中,尽管他想移除它。

如何获得 KDE 仓库的写权限?

作出贡献 > 获得一个 KDE 贡献者帐号 中查看全文。

Go to KDE Identity, fill out the form and describe why you need write access. Make sure to specify your full name and e-mail address.

Please also include the name of your bugs.kde.org account, if non-existent please create one so that it can be given usual developer rights. Closing bugs.kde.org reports with keywords in commit comments only works if the email address of your KDE Identity and bugs.kde.org accounts match. You can change your bugs.kde.org address in the Bugzilla user settings.

Git requires use of an ssh key, and new accounts for SVN must also choose the svn+ssh protocol. Send a public ssh key (e.g. ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub)

See also #How do I create a SSH key?

If you are contributing to an application that is not yours, it is a good idea to first submitting your coding as patches to the author and let him apply them. If the author is not maintaining his application, you might become the new maintainer...

Although there are few restrictions on repository commit rights, we expect you not to disrupt other developers' code without their consent. You must also respect the feature freezes of the release schedule (published on Schedules page)

A detailed list of rules you should follow when committing to KDE repositories are listed in the KDE Commit Policy.

我的应用程序还不稳定,但我想让它加入 KDE

第一步,我们可以把它放在 playground("kde-alpha")。在那里开发它,完善后,申请将应用程序移动到适当的 KDE 包或 extragear 模块。

我不想失去我的 SVN 历史.

This is no longer possible with Subversion. Maybe in the future, if the server is upgraded and allows that. Note that for git this is not an issue.

什么是 kdebindings ?

它包含 Qt 的 Ruby、PHP 和 C# 绑定、KDE 的 Ruby、C# 和 python 绑定以及让非 KDE 的应用程序作为 KPart 嵌入的 XParts。请见 TechBase 的 绑定页面

功能冻结是否适用于 playground?

不,playground 不会发布套件。kdereview 和 extragear 也是相同的:他们没有冻结和发布。但如果你希望你的应用程序转移到套件包,请在 beta 发布之前先询问。

可以同时有稳定和不稳定的 KDE 在同一台计算机上吗?

Yes, check Building KDE Software from git.kde.org video series:

我怎么知道我使用的 Qt/KDE 版本?

kde-config 或在所有 KDE 程序都提供了 --version 参数选项。

Qt-copy 或 qt.nokia.com 的 Qt:应该用哪个做 trunk 建构?

任何一个您都可以使用。它们是二进制兼容的(往前和往后)。但 qt-copy 修正几个 Qt 最新版中的 bug。特别是从 qt-copy 建构,要注意补丁脚本。

How can I checkout a single directory from a SVN module?

Checkout the top-level dir with 'svn co -N /modulename', 'cd modulename', 'svn up admin' to get the admin/ dir and then finally checkout the dir you want with 'svn up subdir'

For instance, to get only reaktivate from playground/utils: svn co -N /playground/utils; svn up reaktivate Then compile as usual.

The same answer applies to the question "How do I get a single language out of kde-i18n?".

If you don't know the name of the directory you want to check out, you can browse websvn.kde.org to find it.

如何取得其中一个 KDE 应用程序作为一个独立的压缩文件?

kdesdk/scripts/svn2dist 是一个从 KDE 原始码树中提取应用程序的脚本,并打包为一个独立的应用程序。

如何关闭我自己的 bug 报告?

If you reported a bug that is fixed in a new release of KDE but is still reported as open, you can close it. It might happen because your bug is the same as another one, or simply because the developer fixed something without noticing that it would correct your bug.

You can do that from your Subversion commit. To do so, append to your commit message a line like this:

BUG: XXXXX where XXXXX is the bug report you want to close. If the report you're closing is adding a new feature, you can use FEATURE instead of BUG.

Managing a bug list is a huge task for the developers and they usually have a lot of bugs listed, some being fixed already without their knowledge, some being unreproducible, some without enough information to be corrected, etc. If you can help by managing and updating the list of outstanding bugs, you will be gladly welcome. And you will receive an even happier welcome if you provide a patch.

How do I create a SSH key?

SSH makes use of two keys: a private key and a public key. You should keep the private key secret at all times and only place it on machines over which you have direct control. Public, shared, and community machines are not suitable environments to store SSH private keys. Take action to help prevent theft of your SSH private key data. Setting a password on your SSH private key will help reduce the risks involved with private key theft.

Generate a key pair for each major location you work from. This helps to reduce the impact when your key gets stolen. When someone obtains access to your private key, your key can be abused in attempts to compromise KDE servers. Well known open source projects have been compromised this way in the past, YOU must help us to make sure that this doesn't happen with KDE servers as well. For that reason it is important to notify sysadmin (at) kde (dot) org immediately when you notice that someone may have had access to your private key for example when a computer on which it was stored has been hacked or infected with a virus, worm or trojan.

If you choose to make a backup of your SSH private key data, please ensure that any such backup is stored in a secure manner as well.

For the practical part, the following command can be used to generate a SSH private/public key pair with ssh-keygen -t dsa This will create a private key as ~/.ssh/id_dsa and a public key as ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub.

There are times when you may want to use a key of a different name to the default, perhaps to use separate keys for different projects. To let SSH know which key you want to use for KDE.org, you can keep a list of servers and their corresponding keys in ~/.ssh/config. For example,

Host svn.kde.org 
IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_dsa_kde

In order to use SSH to access KDE servers you need to send your public key to sysadmin (at) kde (dot) org.

如何监控别人所做的更改?

kde-commits 邮件列表即附带 KDE SVN 仓库所有修改的自动通知。但 KDE-commits 邮件列表流量是非常高的。另一种方法是 CommitFilter,它可以只通知你感兴趣的领域。


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