Difference between revisions of "Projects/KDE on Windows/Porting Guidelines"

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{{TODO|This is content that has been moved out of [1]. Please fix the markup to the Mediawiki style. In the old wiki.kde.org (tikiwiki) markup ~pp~ stands for code block here, and __.....__ means bold.}}
 
[1] http://wiki.kde.org/tiki-index.php?page=KDElibs%2Fwin32+Porting+Guidelines
 
 
 
This document contains rules useful when you're porting selected KDE library to win32. Most of these rules are also valid for porting external libraries code, like application's libraries and even application's standalone code.
 
This document contains rules useful when you're porting selected KDE library to win32. Most of these rules are also valid for porting external libraries code, like application's libraries and even application's standalone code.
  
__TOC__
 
  
!!1. Before you start
+
==Before you start==
 
* Make sure (ask KDElibs/win32 maintainer) that the library you selected for porting is not ported, but just not commited yet.
 
* Make sure (ask KDElibs/win32 maintainer) that the library you selected for porting is not ported, but just not commited yet.
 
* You can ask maintainer for proposals, what can be useful for porting.
 
* You can ask maintainer for proposals, what can be useful for porting.
Line 12: Line 8:
 
* Download most current (HEAD) of the KDE libraries.
 
* Download most current (HEAD) of the KDE libraries.
  
!!2. Absolute dirs checking
+
==Absolute dirs checking==
 
Look for '/' and "/" and change every single code like:
 
Look for '/' and "/" and change every single code like:
  
~pp~
+
<code c>
 
   if (path[0]=='/')
 
   if (path[0]=='/')
~/pp~
+
</code>
 
or:
 
or:
  
~pp~
+
<code cppqt3>
 
   if (path.startsWith('/'))
 
   if (path.startsWith('/'))
~/pp~
+
</code>
 
with:
 
with:
  
~pp~
+
<code cppqt3>
 
   if (!QDir::isRelativePath(path))
 
   if (!QDir::isRelativePath(path))
~/pp~
+
</code>
 
(or "QDir::isRelativePath(path)" if there was used path[[0]!='/')
 
(or "QDir::isRelativePath(path)" if there was used path[[0]!='/')
  
!!3. Ifdefs
+
==Ifdefs==
  
3.1. __C++ code.__
+
===C++ code===
  
 
Macros for C++ code are defined in qglobal.h file. If you've got included at least one Qt header, you probably have qglobal.h included already, otherwise, include it explicity.
 
Macros for C++ code are defined in qglobal.h file. If you've got included at least one Qt header, you probably have qglobal.h included already, otherwise, include it explicity.
  
 
Use
 
Use
~pp~
+
<code c>
 
   #ifdef Q_WS_X11
 
   #ifdef Q_WS_X11
 
   ....
 
   ....
 
   #endif
 
   #endif
~/pp~
+
</code>
 
for any C++ code that looks like X11-only.
 
for any C++ code that looks like X11-only.
  
 
Use
 
Use
~pp~
+
<code c>
 
   #ifdef Q_OS_UNIX
 
   #ifdef Q_OS_UNIX
 
   ....
 
   ....
 
   #endif
 
   #endif
~/pp~
+
</code>
 
for any C++ code that looks like UNIX-only, for example uses UNIX-specific OS features.
 
for any C++ code that looks like UNIX-only, for example uses UNIX-specific OS features.
  
 
Use
 
Use
~pp~
+
<code c>
 
   #ifdef Q_WS_WIN
 
   #ifdef Q_WS_WIN
 
   ....
 
   ....
 
   #endif
 
   #endif
~/pp~
+
</code>
 
for any C++ code that is MSWindows-only.
 
for any C++ code that is MSWindows-only.
  
3.2. __C code.__  Note that qglobal.h is C++-only, so instead use
+
===C code===
~pp~
+
Note that qglobal.h is C++-only, so instead use
 +
<code c>
 
   #ifdef _WINDOWS
 
   #ifdef _WINDOWS
 
   ....
 
   ....
 
   #endif
 
   #endif
~/pp~
+
</code>
  
 
for any C code that is MSWindows-only (regardless to compiler type). In fact, you could use built-in _WIN32 but it's not defined on incoming 64bit MS Windows platform (_WIN64 is used there). So, there's a global rule for kdelibs/win32 defined globally in your build system (you don't need to include any file for this).
 
for any C code that is MSWindows-only (regardless to compiler type). In fact, you could use built-in _WIN32 but it's not defined on incoming 64bit MS Windows platform (_WIN64 is used there). So, there's a global rule for kdelibs/win32 defined globally in your build system (you don't need to include any file for this).
  
3.3. Rare cases: How to check in Windows-only code which compiler is used?
+
=== Rare cases: How to check in Windows-only code which compiler is used?===
  
__MS Visual C++ - Qt-independent code (especially, C code)__
+
====MS Visual C++ - Qt-independent code (especially, C code)====
~pp~
+
<code cpp>
 
   #ifdef _MSC_VER
 
   #ifdef _MSC_VER
 
   ....//msvc code
 
   ....//msvc code
 
   #endif
 
   #endif
~/pp~
+
</code>
  
__MS Visual C++ - Qt code__
+
====MS Visual C++ - Qt code====
~pp~
+
<code cpp>
 
   #ifdef Q_CC_MSVC
 
   #ifdef Q_CC_MSVC
 
   ....//msvc code
 
   ....//msvc code
 
   #endif
 
   #endif
~/pp~
+
</code>
  
__Borland C++ - Qt-independent code (especially, C code)__
+
====Borland C++ - Qt-independent code (especially, C code)====
~pp~
+
<code cpp>
 
   #ifdef __BORLANDC__
 
   #ifdef __BORLANDC__
 
   ....//borland code
 
   ....//borland code
 
   #endif
 
   #endif
~/pp~
+
</code>
  
__Borland C++ - Qt code__
+
====Borland C++ - Qt code====
~pp~
+
<code cpp>
 
   #ifdef Q_CC_BOR
 
   #ifdef Q_CC_BOR
 
   ....//borland code
 
   ....//borland code
 
   #endif
 
   #endif
~/pp~
+
</code>
  
3.4. General notes. In many places using #ifdef Q_OS_UNIX / #else / #endif is more readable than separate #ifdefs.
+
===General notes===
 +
In many places using #ifdef Q_OS_UNIX / #else / #endif is more readable than separate #ifdefs.
  
3.5. Related links
+
===Related links===
 
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/vclang/html/_predir_predefined_macros.asp| msvc++ Predefined Macros]
 
* [http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/vclang/html/_predir_predefined_macros.asp| msvc++ Predefined Macros]
  
!!4. Header files
+
==Header files==
4.1. __Common header file__. Unless there is are any header file from kdelibs included in  
+
===Common header file===
 +
Unless there is are any header file from kdelibs included in  
 
your header file, you need to add:
 
your header file, you need to add:
~pp~
+
<code c>
 
  #include <kdelibs_export.h>
 
  #include <kdelibs_export.h>
~/pp~
+
</code>
 
at the beginning of your header file to have some necessary system-independent macros defined.
 
at the beginning of your header file to have some necessary system-independent macros defined.
  
4.2. __Export macros__. For win32 world, symbols are "hidden by default" (not visible by default as e.g. on unix). This has already been [http://lists.kde.org/?l=kde-core-devel&m=105154800130902&w=2|discussed] on the kde mailing list.
+
===Export macros===
 +
For win32 world, symbols are "hidden by default" (not visible by default as e.g. on unix). This has already been [http://lists.kde.org/?l=kde-core-devel&m=105154800130902&w=2|discussed] on the kde mailing list.
  
 
For every library's code (not for standalone code), you need to make symbols exported for win32.
 
For every library's code (not for standalone code), you need to make symbols exported for win32.
Line 119: Line 119:
 
Example:
 
Example:
  
~pp~
+
<code cpp>
 
class KDEFOO_EXPORT FooClass {
 
class KDEFOO_EXPORT FooClass {
 
...
 
...
 
};
 
};
~/pp~
+
</code>
  
__Note__: For kdelibs, ***_EXPORT macros for are defined in kdelibs_export_win.h file (in kdelibs/win/ directory). You can study this file to see how the macros are defined. This file is simply included by kdelibs_export.h, for win32 target.  
+
'''Note''': For kdelibs, ***_EXPORT macros for are defined in kdelibs_export_win.h file (in kdelibs/win/ directory). You can study this file to see how the macros are defined. This file is simply included by kdelibs_export.h, for win32 target.  
  
__Note2__: Recently we're prepared to gcc's export capatibilities, probably in versions newer than 3.4, just like these in win32's msvc compiler. In kdemacros.h file (included by kdelibs_export.h) there are defines prepared for this functionality:
+
'''Note2''': Recently we're prepared to gcc's export capatibilities, probably in versions newer than 3.4, just like these in win32's msvc compiler. In kdemacros.h file (included by kdelibs_export.h) there are defines prepared for this functionality:
  
~pp~
+
<code cpp>
 
#define KDE_NO_EXPORT __attribute__ ((visibility("hidden")))
 
#define KDE_NO_EXPORT __attribute__ ((visibility("hidden")))
 
#define KDE_EXPORT __attribute__ ((visibility("default")))
 
#define KDE_EXPORT __attribute__ ((visibility("default")))
~/pp~
+
</code>
  
 
For gcc <= 3.4, KDE_EXPORT and KDE_NO_EXPORT macros are just empty. Note that we're not using KDE_NO_EXPORT for non-public symbols: in the future probably it will be better to use command line switch to turn hidding by default (as win32 compiler has).
 
For gcc <= 3.4, KDE_EXPORT and KDE_NO_EXPORT macros are just empty. Note that we're not using KDE_NO_EXPORT for non-public symbols: in the future probably it will be better to use command line switch to turn hidding by default (as win32 compiler has).
  
__Note3__: *_EXPORT macros depend on MAKE_{LIBRARYNAME}_LIB macro. In KDE4 buildsystem (cmake) the latter is defined automatically by reusing {LIBRARYNAME}, for example MAKE_KATEINTERFACES_LIB is constructed when KATEINTERFACES library is compiled. The logic behind it is implemented in kdelibs/cmake/modules/KDE4Macros.cmake:
+
'''Note3''': *_EXPORT macros depend on MAKE_{LIBRARYNAME}_LIB macro. In KDE4 buildsystem (cmake) the latter is defined automatically by reusing {LIBRARYNAME}, for example MAKE_KATEINTERFACES_LIB is constructed when KATEINTERFACES library is compiled. The logic behind it is implemented in kdelibs/cmake/modules/KDE4Macros.cmake:
~pp~
+
<code cpp>
 
   if (WIN32)
 
   if (WIN32)
 
       # for shared libraries/plugins a -DMAKE_target_LIB is required
 
       # for shared libraries/plugins a -DMAKE_target_LIB is required
Line 144: Line 144:
 
       set_target_properties(${_target_NAME} PROPERTIES DEFINE_SYMBOL ${_symbol})
 
       set_target_properties(${_target_NAME} PROPERTIES DEFINE_SYMBOL ${_symbol})
 
   endif (WIN32)  
 
   endif (WIN32)  
~/pp~
+
</code>
  
4.3. __Exporting global functions__. Also add the same ***_EXPORT at the beginning of public functions' declaration and definition (just before function's type). This also includes functions defined within a namespace.
+
===Exporting global functions===
 +
Also add the same ***_EXPORT at the beginning of public functions' declaration and definition (just before function's type). This also includes functions defined within a namespace.
  
 
Example:
 
Example:
~pp~
+
<code cpp>
 
namespace Foo {
 
namespace Foo {
 
  KDEFOO_EXPORT int publicFunction();
 
  KDEFOO_EXPORT int publicFunction();
 
}
 
}
~/pp~
+
</code>
  
4.4. __What not to export?__
+
===What not to export?===
 
* methods inside classes (no matter static or not)
 
* methods inside classes (no matter static or not)
 
* inline functions
 
* inline functions
 
* template classes, e.g.:
 
* template classes, e.g.:
~pp~
+
 
 +
<code cpp>
 
template <class T>
 
template <class T>
 
class KGenericFactoryBase
 
class KGenericFactoryBase
~/pp~
+
</code>
 +
 
 +
 
  
4.5. __Visibility__
+
===Visibility===
 
There are classes or functions that are made "internal", by design. If you really decided anybody could neven need to link against these classes/functions, you don't need to add **_EXPORT macro for them.
 
There are classes or functions that are made "internal", by design. If you really decided anybody could neven need to link against these classes/functions, you don't need to add **_EXPORT macro for them.
  
4.6. __Deprecated classes__
+
===Deprecated classes===
 
Before porting KDElibs to win32, I realized that deprecated classes already use KDE_DEPRECATED macro. We're unable to add another macro like this:
 
Before porting KDElibs to win32, I realized that deprecated classes already use KDE_DEPRECATED macro. We're unable to add another macro like this:
  
~pp~
+
<code cpp>
 
class KDEFOO_EXPORT KDE_DEPRECATED FooClass { //< - bad for moc!
 
class KDEFOO_EXPORT KDE_DEPRECATED FooClass { //< - bad for moc!
 
...
 
...
 
};
 
};
~/pp~
+
</code>
  
 
..because moc'ing will fail for sure. We've defined special macros like that in kdelibs_export.h file (fell free to add your own if needed):
 
..because moc'ing will fail for sure. We've defined special macros like that in kdelibs_export.h file (fell free to add your own if needed):
  
~pp~
+
<code cpp>
 
# ifndef KABC_EXPORT_DEPRECATED
 
# ifndef KABC_EXPORT_DEPRECATED
 
#  define KABC_EXPORT_DEPRECATED KDE_DEPRECATED KABC_EXPORT
 
#  define KABC_EXPORT_DEPRECATED KDE_DEPRECATED KABC_EXPORT
 
# endif
 
# endif
~/pp~
+
</code>
  
 
So, we have following example of deprecated class:
 
So, we have following example of deprecated class:
  
~pp~
+
<code cpp>
 
class KABC_EXPORT_DEPRECATED FooClass { //<- ok for moc
 
class KABC_EXPORT_DEPRECATED FooClass { //<- ok for moc
 
...
 
...
 
};
 
};
~/pp~
+
</code>
  
 
.. which is ok for __moc__. Note that sometimes KDE_DEPRECATED is also used at the end of functions. You don't need to change it for win32 in any way.
 
.. which is ok for __moc__. Note that sometimes KDE_DEPRECATED is also used at the end of functions. You don't need to change it for win32 in any way.
  
!!5. Loadable KDE modules/plugins
+
==Loadable KDE modules/plugins==
  
5.1. __K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY macro__
+
===K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY macro===
  
 
Use K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY( libname, factory ), defined in klibloader.h, instead of hardcoding:
 
Use K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY( libname, factory ), defined in klibloader.h, instead of hardcoding:
~pp~
+
<code cpp>
 
  extern "C" {void *init_libname() { return new factory; } };
 
  extern "C" {void *init_libname() { return new factory; } };
~/pp~
+
</code>
 
...because the former way is more portable (contains proper export macro, which ensures visiblility of "init_libname" symbol).
 
...because the former way is more portable (contains proper export macro, which ensures visiblility of "init_libname" symbol).
  
 
Examples:  
 
Examples:  
~pp~
+
<code cpp>
 
K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY( ktexteditor_insertfile,
 
K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY( ktexteditor_insertfile,
 
     GenericFactory<InsertFilePlugin>( "ktexteditor_insertfile" ) )  
 
     GenericFactory<InsertFilePlugin>( "ktexteditor_insertfile" ) )  
 
K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY( libkatepart, KateFactoryPublic )
 
K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY( libkatepart, KateFactoryPublic )
~/pp~
+
</code>
  
5.2. __More complex case__
+
===More complex case===
  
 
Sometimes you need to declare a factory which defined as a template with multiple arguments, eg.:
 
Sometimes you need to declare a factory which defined as a template with multiple arguments, eg.:
  
~pp~
+
<code cpp>
 
extern "C"
 
extern "C"
 
{
 
{
Line 223: Line 227:
 
   }
 
   }
 
}
 
}
~/pp~
+
</code>
  
 
... but compiler complains about too many arguments passed to K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY. To avoid this, you can use __typedef__:
 
... but compiler complains about too many arguments passed to K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY. To avoid this, you can use __typedef__:
  
~pp~
+
<code bash>
 
typedef KRES::PluginFactory<ResourceExchange,ResourceExchangeConfig>  MyFactory;
 
typedef KRES::PluginFactory<ResourceExchange,ResourceExchangeConfig>  MyFactory;
 
K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY(resourcecalendarexchange, MyFactory)
 
K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY(resourcecalendarexchange, MyFactory)
~/pp~
+
</code>
  
 
The same trick can be used if the constructor of the factory takes multiple arguments.
 
The same trick can be used if the constructor of the factory takes multiple arguments.

Revision as of 20:20, 11 January 2008

This document contains rules useful when you're porting selected KDE library to win32. Most of these rules are also valid for porting external libraries code, like application's libraries and even application's standalone code.


Contents

Before you start

  • Make sure (ask KDElibs/win32 maintainer) that the library you selected for porting is not ported, but just not commited yet.
  • You can ask maintainer for proposals, what can be useful for porting.
  • You will need KDE cvs account for your work.
  • Download most current (HEAD) of the KDE libraries.

Absolute dirs checking

Look for '/' and "/" and change every single code like:

 if (path[0]=='/')

or:

 if (path.startsWith('/'))

with:

 if (!QDir::isRelativePath(path))

(or "QDir::isRelativePath(path)" if there was used path[[0]!='/')

Ifdefs

C++ code

Macros for C++ code are defined in qglobal.h file. If you've got included at least one Qt header, you probably have qglobal.h included already, otherwise, include it explicity.

Use

 #ifdef Q_WS_X11
 ....
 #endif

for any C++ code that looks like X11-only.

Use

 #ifdef Q_OS_UNIX
 ....
 #endif

for any C++ code that looks like UNIX-only, for example uses UNIX-specific OS features.

Use

 #ifdef Q_WS_WIN
 ....
 #endif

for any C++ code that is MSWindows-only.

C code

Note that qglobal.h is C++-only, so instead use

 #ifdef _WINDOWS
 ....
 #endif

for any C code that is MSWindows-only (regardless to compiler type). In fact, you could use built-in _WIN32 but it's not defined on incoming 64bit MS Windows platform (_WIN64 is used there). So, there's a global rule for kdelibs/win32 defined globally in your build system (you don't need to include any file for this).

Rare cases: How to check in Windows-only code which compiler is used?

MS Visual C++ - Qt-independent code (especially, C code)

 #ifdef _MSC_VER
 ....//msvc code
 #endif

MS Visual C++ - Qt code

 #ifdef Q_CC_MSVC
 ....//msvc code
 #endif

Borland C++ - Qt-independent code (especially, C code)

 #ifdef __BORLANDC__
 ....//borland code
 #endif

Borland C++ - Qt code

 #ifdef Q_CC_BOR
 ....//borland code
 #endif

General notes

In many places using #ifdef Q_OS_UNIX / #else / #endif is more readable than separate #ifdefs.

Related links

Header files

Common header file

Unless there is are any header file from kdelibs included in 

your header file, you need to add:

#include <kdelibs_export.h>

at the beginning of your header file to have some necessary system-independent macros defined.

Export macros

For win32 world, symbols are "hidden by default" (not visible by default as e.g. on unix). This has already been [1] on the kde mailing list.

For every library's code (not for standalone code), you need to make symbols exported for win32. Do this by adding ***_EXPORT macro (win32 export macro) after "class" keyword within any public class (and structure) declaration. You may also decide to put this macro even for non-public class, if you think that the class could be used somewhere outside your library.

Example:

class KDEFOO_EXPORT FooClass { ... };

Note: For kdelibs, ***_EXPORT macros for are defined in kdelibs_export_win.h file (in kdelibs/win/ directory). You can study this file to see how the macros are defined. This file is simply included by kdelibs_export.h, for win32 target.

Note2: Recently we're prepared to gcc's export capatibilities, probably in versions newer than 3.4, just like these in win32's msvc compiler. In kdemacros.h file (included by kdelibs_export.h) there are defines prepared for this functionality:

  1. define KDE_NO_EXPORT __attribute__ ((visibility("hidden")))
  2. define KDE_EXPORT __attribute__ ((visibility("default")))

For gcc <= 3.4, KDE_EXPORT and KDE_NO_EXPORT macros are just empty. Note that we're not using KDE_NO_EXPORT for non-public symbols: in the future probably it will be better to use command line switch to turn hidding by default (as win32 compiler has).

Note3: *_EXPORT macros depend on MAKE_{LIBRARYNAME}_LIB macro. In KDE4 buildsystem (cmake) the latter is defined automatically by reusing {LIBRARYNAME}, for example MAKE_KATEINTERFACES_LIB is constructed when KATEINTERFACES library is compiled. The logic behind it is implemented in kdelibs/cmake/modules/KDE4Macros.cmake:

  if (WIN32)
     # for shared libraries/plugins a -DMAKE_target_LIB is required
     string(TOUPPER ${_target_NAME} _symbol)
     set(_symbol "MAKE_${_symbol}_LIB")
     set_target_properties(${_target_NAME} PROPERTIES DEFINE_SYMBOL ${_symbol})
  endif (WIN32) 

Exporting global functions

Also add the same ***_EXPORT at the beginning of public functions' declaration and definition (just before function's type). This also includes functions defined within a namespace.

Example: namespace Foo {

KDEFOO_EXPORT int publicFunction();

}

What not to export?

  • methods inside classes (no matter static or not)
  • inline functions
  • template classes, e.g.:

template <class T> class KGenericFactoryBase


Visibility

There are classes or functions that are made "internal", by design. If you really decided anybody could neven need to link against these classes/functions, you don't need to add **_EXPORT macro for them.

Deprecated classes

Before porting KDElibs to win32, I realized that deprecated classes already use KDE_DEPRECATED macro. We're unable to add another macro like this:

class KDEFOO_EXPORT KDE_DEPRECATED FooClass { //< - bad for moc! ... };

..because moc'ing will fail for sure. We've defined special macros like that in kdelibs_export.h file (fell free to add your own if needed):

  1. ifndef KABC_EXPORT_DEPRECATED
  2. define KABC_EXPORT_DEPRECATED KDE_DEPRECATED KABC_EXPORT
  3. endif

So, we have following example of deprecated class:

class KABC_EXPORT_DEPRECATED FooClass { //<- ok for moc ... };

.. which is ok for __moc__. Note that sometimes KDE_DEPRECATED is also used at the end of functions. You don't need to change it for win32 in any way.

Loadable KDE modules/plugins

K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY macro

Use K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY( libname, factory ), defined in klibloader.h, instead of hardcoding:

extern "C" {void *init_libname() { return new factory; } };

...because the former way is more portable (contains proper export macro, which ensures visiblility of "init_libname" symbol).

Examples: K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY( ktexteditor_insertfile,

   GenericFactory<InsertFilePlugin>( "ktexteditor_insertfile" ) ) 

K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY( libkatepart, KateFactoryPublic )

More complex case

Sometimes you need to declare a factory which defined as a template with multiple arguments, eg.:

extern "C" {

 void* init_resourcecalendarexchange()
 {
   return new KRES::PluginFactory<ResourceExchange,ResourceExchangeConfig>();
 }

}

... but compiler complains about too many arguments passed to K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY. To avoid this, you can use __typedef__:

typedef KRES::PluginFactory<ResourceExchange,ResourceExchangeConfig> MyFactory; K_EXPORT_COMPONENT_FACTORY(resourcecalendarexchange, MyFactory)

The same trick can be used if the constructor of the factory takes multiple arguments.


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