Difference between revisions of "Policies/Kdepim Coding Style"

(Replaced content with "{{Moved To Community}}")
Line 1: Line 1:
== Purpose of this document ==
{{Moved To Community}}
This document describes the recommended coding style for kdepim and akonadi. Nobody is
forced to use this style, but to have consistent formatting of the source code
files it is strongly recommended to make use of it.
''In short: Kdepim and akonadi coding style follows the''
[http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style Kdelibs coding style].
But we have some more rules for some more situations.
== Why is coding Style useful? ==
Let us make a comparision with real life.
To make an addition, one can write:
{{Output| 1=123
+      456
    =      579
But we have learned in primary school to write:
{{Output| 1=Addition
Which is much more readable, easy to control (or debug).
This is Coding Style: not mandatory, but very useful and pretty to read.
== What do we need? ==
'''We need at least:'''
*a '''specification''' (a set of rules) for the coding style of the sources
*some tools to '''check the sources''' against the specification
*some tools to '''change the sources'''
[http://astyle.sourceforge.net/ astyle] is a very suitable tool to make such changes. But astyle doesn't implement (yet) all the specification rules.
You can find below some awk-scripts which help us to check all the rules.
You can find below some awk-scripts which help us to make most of the changes.
The last part must be done manually.
== The specification rules of coding style for kdepim and akonadi ==
These are the sub-sections under '''The rules and the scripts ...'''
== Migration ==
As discussed at the KDEPIM meeting, Berlin, 3 March 2013, all the files of KDEPIM will
be reviewed to follow the coding style.  This will be done over a long time,
directory after directory, for each of the
rules defined above.  For each rule, there are one or two script(s).
The main part of the changes can be done with astyle:
The results can be seen [http://techbase.kde.org/ResultsOfTheMigration here].
== Download Coding Style ==
You can download the software with test files and install instructions.
Download Coding Style: [[Media:CodingStyle.tar.gz]]
== Two scripts '''to check all the rules''' and '''to make the all the changes''' ==
Most of the rules can be checked with the scripts below.
For some of the rules, we don't have a script to change the sources.
It is better first to make a check for such a rule, second to make the modification(s) manually to suscript the rule(s).
There are two scripts that run all the checks and apply all the changes at once:
For each specification rule, the name of the scripts to check and apply the changes
are given at the beginning of the section.
== The rules and the scripts '''to check''' and '''to make the changes''' ==
The first script is '''to check''' a single file or all .h and .cpp files in a directory.
If present, the second script '''applies the changes'''.
For some complicated situations, the script makes no change.
You can use the scripts for your own work. It is recommended to use them in this order.
=== Don't test all directories ===
If a '''.no_coding_style''' file is present on a directory, the test will not be done.
If a '''.no_recursion''' file is present on a directory, we do not explore the subdirectory(ies)
=== Indentation with four spaces, don't use any <TAB>s ===
*The changes are well done with
{{Output| 1=astyle --indent=spaces=4
=== Trim the lines ===
*The changes are well done with:
{{Output| 1=astyle --indent=spaces
=== Only single empty lines ===
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Whitespace
=== The first line and the last line(s) may not be empty ===
Some of the sources have empty lines at the beginning of the file. Some have one or more empty last line(s).
=== Only one statement per line ===
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
=== Variable declaration ===
We follow the kdelibs rule: [[http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Variable_declaration]]
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
=== Only one declaration per line ===
We follow the kdelibs rule: [[http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Variable_declaration]]
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
=== Use one space after each keyword, but not after a cast ===
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Whitespace
For most of the keywords, it is not necessary to make a test. Because the sources have been already compiled. For example this code never appear in a compiled source:
In this case, the missing space leads to a syntax error which is detected by the compiler. We don't need to check this manually.
Some of the keywords are alone in the statement, such as '''break''' and '''continue'''. No test is necessary.
The only tests we have to do are the ones where a keyword is (or can be) followed
by a sign '''( { [ :'''
These are:
'''alignas decltype alignof noexcept typeid asm static_assert switch if catch while for foreach sizeof new Q_FOREACH FOREACH do try enum union Q_FOREVER bool char char16_t char32_t double float int long wchar_t signed unsigned short'''
=== Use a space after the name of the class ===
We prefer having a space before the keyword public at the definition of a new class:
{{Output|1=class DbException : public Akonadi::Exception
=== #include directive ===
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Qt_Includes
We prefer no space at the beginning of the directive. Some (not many) files need to be corrected to unify to all the other files.
{{Output|1=// some files use this
# include <A/b>
// we prefer to unify the coding style
#include <A/b>}}
=== Place '''*''' and '''&''' next to the variable ===
The declaration S *D; declares D as a pointer to the type determined by decl-specifier-seq S.
For most compilers, the three declarations below are semantically the same:
{{Output|1=int *a;
int* b;
int * c
We prefer the first one, without a space beetwen the star and the name of the variable:
{{Output|1=int *a;
The same rule may be use for:
{{Output|1=myFunction(int &a, int& b, int & c)
    // some lines
We prefer:
{{Output|1=myFunction(int &a, int &b, int &c)
The awk-script checks also the occurences of:
* '''&,'''
* '''& >'''
* '''* >'''
* '''( )''' and '''(  )''' ''empty function call''
* '''enum {''' ''untyped enum''
Not all the ouputs are real errors. Some codings might be correct.
*using astyle to make the changes:
{{Output| 1=astyle --reference=name --align-pointer=name
Some lines with must be manually corrected.
=== Use '''namespace foo {''' in the same line ===
We prefer having all in one line:
{{Output|1=namespace foo {
*astyle to make the changes.
=== Use '''struct foo''' with '''{''' at the next line ===
We prefer having the same coding style for a '''class''' and a '''struct'''
{{Output|1=struct foo
NOTE: The script must be use after astyle.
=== Each member initialization of a method in separate line ===
This example shows the indentation we prefer. Notice that colon sign and comma(s)
are at the beginning of each initialization line(s):
{{Output|1=class myClass
    // some lines
    myClass(int r, int b, int i, int j)
        : r(0)
        , b(i)
        , i(5)
        , j(13)
    // more lines
=== Surround all operators with spaces ===
This is well done with astyle:
{{Output| 1=astyle --pad-oper
=== '''switch''' rules ===
This example shows the indentation we prefer:
{{Output|1=switch (a) {
case ''one'':
    // some lines
case ''two'': {
    // some lines
case ''three'': {
    // some lines
    // some lines
*astyle makes the changes
NOTE: By using a new block, we prefer having '''break;''' and '''return;''' within the new block.
=== '''try-catch''' rules ===
This example shows the indentation we prefer:
{{Output|1=try {
    // some lines
} catch (...) {
=== '''if''', '''else''', '''for''', '''while''' (and similar macros) rules ===
Even for blocks with only one statement, we prefer to use braces such as:
{{Output|1=if (''condition'') {
This should be used with the keywords '''if''', '''else''', '''for''', '''while''' and similar macros.
*astyle makes the changes.
But we get some false alarm with statements that extend over more than one line:
{{Output|1=if (''condition_1''
    && ''condition_2'') {
=== '''typedef struct''' statement over more lines ===
This example shows the indentation we prefer:
{{Output|1=typedef struct foo {
    // some lines
=== Don't use '''&''' without a variable ===
It is more readable to have the name of (all) the variable(s) in the first line of a method.
The chnages must be done manually.
=== Don't use untyped '''enum''' ===
Instead of having an untyped enum such as:
{{Output|1=  enum {
    aElement= 123
we prefer a #define directive:
{{Output|1=#define aElement 123
=== Don't use '''enum''' with empty member ===
The most compilers do not complain such a code:
{{Output|1=  enum mytype {
The last element is empty.
We prefer a "pedantic" code such as:
{{Output|1=  enum mytype {
=== No ''';''' after some macros ===
Looking over the git-history, one can find some "pedantic" changes.
These are changes to make a better code. The most of them are at the use of macro, where it is not necessary to have a ''';''' at the end ofthe command.
The script make a check over all these:
=== No "one line" '''if''', '''else''', '''for''' or '''while''' statement ===
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Braces
The following code:
{{Output|1=if (a > b) c = 123;}}
is correct, but we prefer the block:
{{Output|1=if (a > b) {
  c = 123;
which is easier to debug, to read and to modify.
It is also possible to put a breakpoint at the line in the block.
As the awk-script is too simple to recognize all the if-statements, we get some false alarm and
we can't make the changes automatically.
=== No space between some keywords ===
We don't want to have a space:
*between '''&''' and '''>'''
*between '''*''' and '''>'''
*between '''(''' and ''')''', an empty parameter list.
=== No space around the index of an array ===
We don't want to have spaces around the index of an array element.
=== No space around an expression surrounded with braces ===
We prefer function definition and function call with no space after the opening brace and before the closing brace.
*This is well done with astyle:
{{Output| 1=astyle --unpad-paren
Note that astyle makes also changes within the macros SIGNAL and SLOT, which aren't desired.
This can be corrected with a Qt-utility qt5/qtrepotools/util/normalize/normalize:
{{Output| 1=normalize --modify ''filename''
=== No space before ''':''' in a case statement ===
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
=== No space before ''';''' at the end of statement ===
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
=== No ''');''' alone in a line ===
This is sometime to be find with a function call with many arguments, listed on many lines.
=== No space before a comma ===
This is sometime to be found in a function call.
=== Operator overloading ===
As written at:
"... Defining an overloaded operator is like defining a function, but the name of that function is [email protected], in which @ represents the operator that’s being overloaded. ..."
Some sources use a space after the reserved word operator. We prefer to use the syntax without space.
== Use all the scripts ==
All the scripts can be used with one only script.
== Check the objects and the libs ==
Since the changes described above are only coding style changes, they are ignored by the compiler.
Therefore, the result of the compilation is expected to be exactly the same after applying any of the rules.
To check this, one uses the '''Md5sum-the-Objects.sh'''.
Same for the libs. Use the '''Md5sum-the-Libs.sh'''.
The script can be used with one of the commands:
* save
* test
* clean
'''An example:'''
{{Input|1=cd <some_kdepim_directory>
mkdir build
cd build
ccmake ../
{{Output|1=<span style="color:Fuchsia">Scanning dependencies of target gpgmepp</span>
[  0%] <span style="color:green">Building CXX object gpgme++/CMakeFiles/gpgmepp.dir/gpgmepp_automoc.cpp.o</span>
[  0%] <span style="color:green">Building CXX object gpgme++/CMakeFiles/gpgmepp.dir/exception.cpp.o</span>
[  0%] <span style="color:green">Building CXX object gpgme++/CMakeFiles/gpgmepp.dir/context.cpp.o</span>
{{Input|1=Check-the-Objects.sh save}}
The script makes a copy of all the objects and a "time stamp":
{{Output|1=save the object ./kholidays/tests/CMakeFiles/testzodiac.dir/testzodiac.cpp.o
save the object ./kholidays/tests/CMakeFiles/testzodiac.dir/testzodiac_automoc.cpp.o
all objects are saved}}
Now, one makes somes change(s) on the source(s) and:
{{Input| 1=make}}
Depending on the Makefile, some objects will be compiled again:
{{Output| 1=<span style="color:Fuchsia">Scanning dependencies of target akonadi-kde</span>
[ 17%] <span style="color:green">Building CXX object akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/entitytreeview.cpp.o</span>
[ 17%] <span style="color:green">Building CXX object akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/itemfetchjob.cpp.o</span>
[ 17%] <span style="color:green">Building CXX object akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/statisticsproxymodel.cpp.o</span>
<span style="color:Fuchsia">Scanning dependencies of target akonadi-kmime</span>
[ 56%] <span style="color:green">Building CXX object akonadi/kmime/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kmime.dir/standardmailactionmanager.cpp.o</span>}}
{{Input|1=Check-the-Objects.sh test}}
The script finds all the new objects, makes a comparision with the saved version:
{{Output|1=test the object ./akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/statisticsproxymodel.cpp.o
test the object ./akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/entitytreeview.cpp.o
test the object ./akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/itemfetchjob.cpp.o
test the object ./akonadi/kmime/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kmime.dir/standardmailactionmanager.cpp.o
all tests are OK
== Check the assembler files ==
If we add or remove some lines, the debug information included in the object file will change also.
This is the case with the test/change of "''Only single empty lines should be used''", "''First line, last line(s) may not be empty''" and some more test/change below (''adding some blocks'' with { and }).
For this reason it is no more possible to compare the objects.
We have to compare the assembler files.
This works pretty well for the version with '''CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE''' set to ''release''.
For the version with '''CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE''' set to ''debug'', we must remove all the debug information before the comparision can take place.
=== Generate the assembler files ===
To generate the assembler files, we only need to modify the ''build.make'' in every folder.
The script '''Prepare-build_make_files.sh''' works on the all directory, finds the line with the compiler command,
duplicates the line, add a ''-S option'' and changes the name of the output to ''somename.s''.
After a new ''make'' command, we can save all the assembler files with the script '''Check-the-assembler_code.sh'''.
=== Remove the debug information ===
The debug information changes with the changes of line numbers.
We drop all the debug information before making the test.
The script to check the assembler files can be used in the same way as the one above (Check-the-Objects.sh).
To check this, one uses the '''Check-the-assembler_code.sh'''.
The script can be used with one of the commands:
* save
* test
* clean
== The results of the migration ==
The results can be seen [http://techbase.kde.org/ResultsOfTheMigration here].

Latest revision as of 18:19, 10 March 2016

This page is now on the community wiki.

This page was last edited on 10 March 2016, at 18:19. Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 4.0 unless otherwise noted.