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== Purpose of this document ==
+
{{Moved To Community}}
 
 
This document describes the recommended coding style for kdepim and akonadi. Nobody is
 
forced to use this style, but to have consistent formatting of the source code
 
files it is strongly recommended to make use of it.
 
 
 
''In short: Kdepim and akonadi coding style follows the''
 
[http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style Kdelibs coding style].
 
 
 
But we have some more rules for some more situations.
 
 
 
== Why is coding Style useful? ==
 
 
 
Let us make a comparision with real life.
 
To make an addition, one can write:
 
 
 
{{Output| 1=123
 
+      456
 
  ==========
 
    =      579
 
}}
 
 
 
But we have learned in primary school to write:
 
 
 
{{Output| 1=Addition
 
  123
 
+456
 
====
 
=579
 
}}
 
 
 
Which is much more readable, easy to control (or debug).
 
 
 
This is Coding Style: not mandatory but very useful and pretty to read.
 
 
 
== What do we need? ==
 
 
 
'''We need at least:'''
 
*a '''specification''' (a set of rules) for the coding style of the sources
 
*some tools to '''check the sources''' against the specification
 
*some tools to '''change the sources'''
 
 
 
 
 
[http://astyle.sourceforge.net/ astyle] is a suitable tool to make such changes. But astyle doesn't implement (yet) all the specification rules.
 
 
 
You can find below some awk-scripts which help us to check all the rules.
 
 
 
You can find below some awk-scripts which help us to make most of the changes.
 
The last part must be done manually.
 
 
 
== The specification rules of coding style for kdepim and akonadi ==
 
 
 
*Indentation with four spaces, don't use any <TAB>s
 
*Trim the lines
 
*Only single empty lines
 
*The first line and the last line(s) may not be empty
 
*Only one statement per line
 
*Variable declaration
 
*Only one declaration per line
 
*Use a space after each keyword, but not after a cast
 
*Use a space after the name of the class
 
*include directive
 
*Place '''*''' and '''&''' next to the variable
 
*Use '''namespace foo {''' in the same line
 
*Each member initialization of a method in a separate line
 
*Surround all operators with spaces
 
*'''switch''' rules
 
*'''try-catch''' rules
 
*'''if''', '''for''', '''while''' and similar macros rules
 
*'''typedef struct''' statement over more lines
 
*Don't use '''&,''' without a variable
 
*Don't use untyped '''enum'''
 
*Don't use '''enum''' with empty member
 
*No ''';''' after some macros
 
*No "one line" '''if''' '''for''' '''while''' statement
 
*No code after '''{'''
 
*No code before '''}''' (but else)
 
*No header and body code in the same line, even empty body
 
*No space between some keywords
 
*No space around the index of an array
 
*No space around an expression surrounded with braces
 
*No space before ''':''' in a case statement
 
*No space before ''';''' at the end of statement
 
*No ''');''' alone in a line
 
 
 
== Migration ==
 
 
 
As discussed at the KDEPIM meeting, Berlin, 3 March 2013, all the files of KDEPIM will
 
be reviewed to follow the coding style.  This will be done over a long time,
 
directory after directory, for each of the
 
rules defined above.  For each rule, there are one or two script(s).
 
 
 
The main part of the changes can be done with astyle:
 
http://astyle.sourceforge.net/
 
 
 
The results can be seen [http://techbase.kde.org/ResultsOfTheMigration here].
 
 
 
== Download Coding Style ==
 
 
 
You can download the software with test files and install instructions.
 
 
 
Download Coding Style: [[Media:CodingStyle.tar.gz]]
 
 
 
== Two scripts '''to check all the rules''' and '''to make the all the changes''' ==
 
 
 
Most of the rules can be checked with the scripts below.
 
For some of the rules, we don't have a script to change the sources.
 
It is better first to make a check for such a rule, second to make the modification(s) manually to suscript the rule(s).
 
 
 
There are two scripts that run all the checks and apply all the changes at once:
 
*All-Check.sh
 
*Change-All.sh
 
 
 
For each specification rule, the name of the scripts to check and apply the changes
 
are given at the beginning of the section.
 
 
 
== The scripts '''to check''' and '''to make the changes''' ==
 
 
 
The first script is '''to check''' a single file or all .h and .cpp files in a directory.
 
 
 
If present, the second script '''applies the changes'''.
 
For some complicated situations, the script makes no change.
 
 
 
You can use the scripts for your own work. It is recommended to use them in this order.
 
 
 
=== Don't test all directories ===
 
 
 
If a '''.no_coding_style''' file is present on a directory, the test will not be done.
 
 
 
If a '''.no_recursion''' file is present on a directory, we do not explore the subdirectory(ies)
 
 
 
=== Indentation with four spaces, don't use any <TAB>s ===
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-Tabs.sh
 
*The changes are well done with
 
{{Output| 1=astyle --indent=spaces
 
}}
 
 
 
 
 
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 
{{Output|1=check the file ktnefparser.cpp
 
308: Tab at 16:  stream_ >> i;              // i <- attribute type & name
 
311: Tab at 16:  stream_ >> i;              // i <- data length
 
326: Tab at 22:  case attATTACHMENT:        // try to get attachment info
 
367: Tab at 16:  stream_ >> u;      // u <- checksum
 
}}
 
 
 
This shows:
 
* the name of the file which is under test.
 
* the line number, the position found and the line itself.
 
 
 
=== Trim the lines ===
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-Trim.sh
 
*The changes are well done with:
 
{{Output| 1=astyle --indent=spaces
 
}}
 
 
 
 
 
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 
{{Output|1=check the file trim.cpp
 
51: Space(s) at end of line (28):  QVariant m_matchData;
 
}}
 
 
 
This shows:
 
* the name of the file which is under test.
 
* the line number, the position found and the line itself.
 
 
 
=== Only single empty lines ===
 
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Whitespace
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-Twice.sh
 
*coding-style-change-Twice.sh
 
* astyle cannot (yet) do it
 
 
 
 
 
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 
{{Output|1=check the file enclosure.cpp
 
25: multiple empty line found
 
26: multiple empty line found
 
30: multiple empty line found
 
}}
 
 
 
This shows:
 
* the name of the file which is under test.
 
* the line numbers.
 
 
 
The '''change''' script:
 
*removes all the multiple empty line(s).
 
 
 
=== The first line and the last line(s) may not be empty ===
 
 
 
Some of the sources have empty lines at the beginning of the file. Some have one or more empty last line(s).
 
*coding-style-check-First-Last.sh
 
*coding-style-change-First-Last.sh
 
*astyle cannot (yet) do it
 
 
 
 
 
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 
{{Output|1=check the file trim.cpp
 
The first line is empty
 
The last line is empty}}
 
 
 
The '''change''' script:
 
*removes the first line if empty, all the last empty line(s).
 
 
 
=== Only one statement per line ===
 
 
 
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
 
 
 
=== Variable declaration ===
 
 
 
We follow the kdelibs rule: [[http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Variable_declaration]]
 
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
 
 
 
=== Only one declaration per line ===
 
 
 
We follow the kdelibs rule: [[http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Variable_declaration]]
 
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
 
 
 
=== Use one space after each keyword, but not after a cast ===
 
 
 
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Whitespace
 
 
 
For most of the keywords, it is not necessary to make a test. Because the sources have been already compiled. For example this code never appear in a compiled source:
 
{{Output|1=intmyVariableAa;
 
floatmyVariableBb;}}
 
 
 
In this case, the missing space leads to a syntax error which is detected by the compiler. We don't need to check this manually.
 
 
 
Some of the keywords are alone in the statement, such as '''break''' and '''continue'''. No test is necessary.
 
 
 
The only tests we have to do are the ones where a keyword is (or can be) followed
 
by a sign '''( { [ :'''
 
 
 
These are:
 
'''alignas decltype alignof noexcept typeid asm static_assert switch if catch while for foreach sizeof new Q_FOREACH FOREACH do try enum union Q_FOREVER bool char char16_t char32_t double float int long wchar_t signed unsigned short'''
 
 
 
For only '''one''' keyword:
 
*coding-style-check-SpaceAfterKeyword.sh
 
*coding-style-change-SpaceAfterKeyword.sh
 
 
 
 
 
For '''all''' keywords above:
 
*coding-style-check-SpaceAfter.sh
 
*coding-style-change-SpaceAfter.sh
 
 
 
=== Use a space after the name of the class ===
 
 
 
We prefer having a space before the keyword public at the definition of a new class:
 
{{Output|1=class DbException : public Akonadi::Exception
 
{
 
  ...
 
};}}
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-Public.sh
 
*coding-style-change-Public.sh
 
*astyle cannot (yet) do it
 
 
 
 
 
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 
{{Output|1=check the file public.cpp
 
98:  no<SPACE>: public found: class foo: public QObject
 
}}
 
 
 
The '''change''' script:
 
*puts a space after the keyword.
 
 
 
=== #include directive ===
 
 
 
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Qt_Includes
 
 
 
We prefer no space at the beginning of the directive. Some (not many) files need to be corrected to unify to all the other files.
 
 
 
{{Output|1=// some files use this
 
# include <A/b>
 
 
 
// we prefer to unify the coding style
 
#include <A/b>}}
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-Space-Include.sh
 
 
 
=== Place '''*''' and '''&''' next to the variable ===
 
 
 
The declaration S *D; declares D as a pointer to the type determined by decl-specifier-seq S.
 
 
 
For most compilers, the three declarations below are semantically the same:
 
 
 
{{Output|1=int *a;
 
int* b;
 
int * c
 
}}
 
 
 
We prefer the first one, without a space beetwen the star and the name of the variable:
 
 
 
{{Output|1=int *a;
 
}}
 
 
 
The same rule may be use for:
 
 
 
{{Output|1=myFunction(int &a, int& b, int & c)
 
{
 
    // some lines
 
}
 
}}
 
 
 
We prefer:
 
{{Output|1=myFunction(int &a, int &b, int &c)
 
}}
 
 
 
The awk-script checks also the occurences of:
 
* '''&,'''
 
* '''& >'''
 
* '''* >'''
 
* '''( )''' and '''(  )''' ''empty function call''
 
 
 
* '''enum {''' ''untyped enum''
 
 
 
Not all the ouputs are real errors. Some codings might be correct.
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-NO-Space.sh
 
*using astyle to make the changes:
 
{{Output| 1=astyle --reference=name --align-pointer=name
 
}}
 
 
 
 
 
Some lines with "type & name..." must be manually corrected.
 
 
 
 
 
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 
{{Output|1=check the file public.cpp
 
35: Star<Space> found. Check it. ContactSearchJob::ContactSearchJob( QObject * parent )
 
}}
 
 
 
=== Use '''namespace foo {''' in the same line ===
 
 
 
We prefer having all in one line:
 
{{Output|1=namespace foo {
 
  ...
 
}
 
}}
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-Namespace.sh
 
*astyle to make the changes.
 
 
 
=== Use '''struct foo''' with '''{''' at the next line ===
 
 
 
We prefer having the same coding style for a '''class''' and a '''struct'''
 
{{Output|1=struct foo
 
{
 
  ...
 
}
 
}}
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-Struct.sh
 
*coding-style-change-Struct.sh
 
 
 
NOTE: The script must be use after astyle.
 
 
 
=== Each member initialization of a method in separate line ===
 
 
 
This example shows the indentation we prefer. Notice that colon sign and comma(s)
 
are at the beginning of each initialization line(s):
 
 
 
{{Output|1=class myClass {
 
    // some lines
 
public:
 
    myClass(int r, int b, int i, int j)
 
        : r(0)
 
        , b(i)
 
        , i(5)
 
        , j(13)
 
{
 
    // more lines
 
}
 
}}
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-Default-1.sh
 
*coding-style-check-Default-2.sh
 
*coding-style-change-Default-1.sh
 
*coding-style-change-Default-2.sh
 
*astyle cannot (yet) do it
 
 
 
=== Surround all operators with spaces ===
 
 
 
This is well done with astyle:
 
{{Output| 1=astyle --pad-oper
 
}}
 
 
 
=== '''switch''' rules ===
 
 
 
This example shows the indentation we prefer:
 
 
 
{{Output|1=switch (a) {
 
case ''one'':
 
    // some lines
 
    break;
 
case ''two'': {
 
    // some lines
 
    break;
 
}
 
default:
 
    // some lines
 
    break;
 
}
 
}}
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-Switch.sh
 
*astyle
 
 
 
=== '''try-catch''' rules ===
 
 
 
This example shows the indentation we prefer:
 
 
 
{{Output|1=try {
 
    // some lines
 
} catch (...) {
 
}
 
}}
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-TryCatch.sh
 
 
 
=== '''if''', '''for''', '''while''' (and similar macros) rules ===
 
 
 
Even for blocks with only one statement, we prefer to use braces such as:
 
 
 
{{Output|1=if (''condition'') {
 
    ''statement;''
 
}
 
}}
 
 
 
This should be used with the keywords '''if''', '''for''', '''while''' and similar macros.
 
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 
 
 
{{Output|1=check the file test-if.cpp
 
62: if without { at end of line:    if ( collection.cachePolicyLocalParts() )
 
}}
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-If.sh
 
*coding-style-check-Else.sh
 
*coding-style-check-For.sh
 
*coding-style-check-While.sh
 
*astyle
 
 
 
 
 
But we get some false alarm with statements that extend over more than one line:
 
 
 
{{Output|1=if (''condition_1''
 
    && ''condition_2'') {
 
    ''statement;''
 
}
 
}}
 
 
 
=== '''typedef struct''' statement over more lines ===
 
 
 
This example shows the indentation we prefer:
 
 
 
{{Output|1=typedef struct foo {
 
    // some lines
 
}
 
}}
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-TypedefStruct.sh
 
 
 
=== Don't use '''&''' without a variable ===
 
 
 
=== Don't use untyped '''enum''' ===
 
 
 
Instead of having an untyped enum such as:
 
{{Output|1=  enum {
 
    aElement= 123
 
}
 
}}
 
we prefer a #define directive:
 
{{Output|1=#define aElement 123
 
}}
 
 
 
=== Don't use '''enum''' with empty member ===
 
 
 
The most compilers do not complain such a code:
 
 
 
{{Output|1=  enum mytype {
 
    aElement,
 
    bElement,
 
}
 
}}
 
 
 
The last element is empty.
 
We prefer a "pedantic" code such as:
 
 
 
{{Output|1=  enum mytype {
 
    aElement,
 
    bElement
 
}
 
}}
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-Enum-Pedantic.sh
 
 
 
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 
{{Output|1=check the file enum-example.cpp
 
enum with ,} found at
 
3->    bElement,
 
4->  }
 
}}
 
 
 
=== No ''';''' after some macros ===
 
 
 
Looking over the git-history, one can find some "pedantic" changes.
 
These are changes to make a better code. The most of them are at the use of macro, where it is not necessary to have a ''';''' at the end ofthe command.
 
The script make a check over all these:
 
'''AKTEST_MAIN;MAKE_CMD_ROW;Q_DECLARE_FLAGS;Q_PRIVATE_SLOT;Q_DECLARE_METATYPE;Q_DECLARE_OPERATORS_FOR_FLAGS;Q_DE
 
CLARE_PRIVATE;Q_DECLARE_PUBLIC;Q_DISABLE_COPY;K_GLOBAL_STATIC;Q_IMPORT_PLUGIN;Q_PROPERTY;QTEST_KDEMAIN;QTEST_MAIN'''
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-Pedantic.sh
 
*astyle cannot (yet) do it
 
 
 
=== No "one line" '''if''' '''else''' '''for''' '''while''' statement ===
 
 
 
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Braces
 
 
 
The following code:
 
{{Output|1=if (a > b) c = 123;}}
 
is correct, but we prefer the block:
 
{{Output|1=if (a > b) {
 
  c = 123;
 
}
 
}}
 
which is easier to debug, to read and to modify.
 
 
 
It is also possible to put a breakpoint at the line in the block.
 
 
 
As the awk-script is too simple to recognize all the if-statements, we get some false alarm and
 
we can't make the changes automatically.
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-OneLine-If.sh
 
*coding-style-check-OneLine-Else.sh
 
 
 
 
 
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 
{{Output|1=check the file if-example.cpp
 
25: one-line-if found
 
}}
 
 
 
=== No space between some keywords ===
 
 
 
We don't want to have a space:
 
*between '''&''' and '''>'''
 
*between '''*''' and '''>'''
 
*between '''(''' and ''')''', an empty parameter list.
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-No-Space.sh
 
 
 
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 
{{Output|1=check the file NO-space-example.cpp
 
15: Star<Space> found. Check it.  int * myA;
 
28: AND<Space> found. Check it.  abc( & myA);
 
}}
 
 
 
=== No space around the index of an array ===
 
 
 
We don't want to have spaces around the index of an array element.
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-No-Space.sh
 
 
 
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 
{{Output|1=check the file NO-space-example.cpp
 
15: [<Space> found. Check it.  a = b[ i ];
 
15: <Space>] found. Check it.  a = b[ i ];
 
}}
 
 
 
=== No space around an expression surrounded with braces ===
 
 
 
We prefer function definition and function call with no space after the opening brace and before the closing brace.
 
 
 
*coding-style-check-Parenthesis.sh
 
*This is well done with astyle:
 
{{Output| 1=astyle --unpad-paren
 
}}
 
Note that astyle makes also changes within the macros SIGNAL and SLOT, which aren't desired.
 
This can be corrected with a Qt-utility qt5/qtrepotools/util/normalize/normalize:
 
{{Output| 1=normalize --modify ''filename''
 
}}
 
 
 
=== No space before ''':''' in a case statement ===
 
 
 
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
 
 
 
=== No space before ''';''' at the end of statement ===
 
 
 
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
 
 
 
=== No ''');''' alone in a line ===
 
 
 
This is sometime to be find with a function call with many arguments, listed on many lines.
 
*coding-style-check-Parenthesis-alone.sh
 
 
 
== Use all the scripts ==
 
 
 
All the scripts can be used with one only script.
 
 
 
== Check the objects and the libs ==
 
 
 
Since the changes described above are only coding style changes, they are ignored by the compiler.
 
Therefore, the result of the compilation is expected to be exactly the same after applying any of the rules.
 
 
 
To check this, one uses the '''Md5sum-the-Objects.sh'''.
 
Same for the libs. Use the '''Md5sum-the-Libs.sh'''.
 
 
 
The script can be used with one of the commands:
 
* save
 
* test
 
* clean
 
 
 
'''An example:'''
 
 
 
{{Input|1=cd <some_kdepim_directory>
 
mkdir build
 
cd build
 
ccmake ../
 
make}}
 
{{Output|1=<span style="color:Fuchsia">Scanning dependencies of target gpgmepp</span>
 
[  0%] <span style="color:green">Building CXX object gpgme++/CMakeFiles/gpgmepp.dir/gpgmepp_automoc.cpp.o</span>
 
[  0%] <span style="color:green">Building CXX object gpgme++/CMakeFiles/gpgmepp.dir/exception.cpp.o</span>
 
[  0%] <span style="color:green">Building CXX object gpgme++/CMakeFiles/gpgmepp.dir/context.cpp.o</span>
 
...}}
 
 
 
{{Input|1=Check-the-Objects.sh save}}
 
The script makes a copy of all the objects and a "time stamp":
 
{{Output|1=save the object ./kholidays/tests/CMakeFiles/testzodiac.dir/testzodiac.cpp.o
 
save the object ./kholidays/tests/CMakeFiles/testzodiac.dir/testzodiac_automoc.cpp.o
 
...
 
all objects are saved}}
 
 
 
Now, one makes somes change(s) on the source(s) and:
 
 
 
{{Input| 1=make}}
 
 
 
Depending on the Makefile, some objects will be compiled again:
 
 
 
{{Output| 1=<span style="color:Fuchsia">Scanning dependencies of target akonadi-kde</span>
 
[ 17%] <span style="color:green">Building CXX object akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/entitytreeview.cpp.o</span>
 
[ 17%] <span style="color:green">Building CXX object akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/itemfetchjob.cpp.o</span>
 
[ 17%] <span style="color:green">Building CXX object akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/statisticsproxymodel.cpp.o</span>
 
...
 
<span style="color:Fuchsia">Scanning dependencies of target akonadi-kmime</span>
 
[ 56%] <span style="color:green">Building CXX object akonadi/kmime/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kmime.dir/standardmailactionmanager.cpp.o</span>}}
 
 
 
{{Input|1=Check-the-Objects.sh test}}
 
 
 
The script finds all the new objects, makes a comparision with the saved version:
 
{{Output|1=test the object ./akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/statisticsproxymodel.cpp.o
 
test the object ./akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/entitytreeview.cpp.o
 
test the object ./akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/itemfetchjob.cpp.o
 
test the object ./akonadi/kmime/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kmime.dir/standardmailactionmanager.cpp.o
 
all tests are OK
 
}}
 
 
 
== Check the assembler files ==
 
If we add or remove some lines, the debug information included in the object file will change also.
 
 
 
This is the case with the test/change of "''Only single empty lines should be used''", "''First line, last line(s) may not be empty''" and some more test/change below (''adding some blocks'' with { and }).
 
 
 
For this reason it is no more possible to compare the objects.
 
We have to compare the assembler files.
 
This works pretty well for the version with '''CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE''' set to ''release''.
 
For the version with '''CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE''' set to ''debug'', we must remove all the debug information before the comparision can take place.
 
 
 
=== Generate the assembler files ===
 
 
 
To generate the assembler files, we only need to modify the ''build.make'' in every folder.
 
 
 
The script '''Prepare-build_make_files.sh''' works on the all directory, finds the line with the compiler command,
 
duplicates the line, add a ''-S option'' and changes the name of the output to ''somename.s''.
 
After a new ''make'' command, we can save all the assembler files with the script '''Check-the-assembler_code.sh'''.
 
 
 
=== Remove the debug information ===
 
 
 
The debug information changes with the changes of line numbers.
 
We drop all the debug information before making the test.
 
 
 
The script to check the assembler files can be used in the same way as the one above (Check-the-Objects.sh).
 
To check this, one uses the '''Check-the-assembler_code.sh'''.
 
 
 
The script can be used with one of the commands:
 
* save
 
* test
 
* clean
 
 
 
== The results of the migration ==
 
 
 
The results can be seen [http://techbase.kde.org/ResultsOfTheMigration here].
 

Latest revision as of 18:19, 10 March 2016

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