Difference between revisions of "Policies/Kdepim Coding Style"

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[http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style Kdelibs coding style].
 
[http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style Kdelibs coding style].
  
== Why is coding Style usefull? ==
+
But we have some more rules for some more situations.
 +
 
 +
== Why is coding Style useful? ==
  
 
Let us make a comparision with real life.
 
Let us make a comparision with real life.
To make an addition, one can do:
+
To make an addition, one can write:
  
 
{{Output| 1=123
 
{{Output| 1=123
Line 19: Line 21:
 
}}
 
}}
  
But we have learned at the primary to write:
+
But we have learned in primary school to write:
  
 
{{Output| 1=Addition
 
{{Output| 1=Addition
Line 30: Line 32:
 
Which is much more readable, easy to control (or debug).
 
Which is much more readable, easy to control (or debug).
  
This is Coding Style: not necessary but very usefull, and pretty to read.
+
This is Coding Style: not mandatory, but very useful and pretty to read.
  
 
== What do we need? ==
 
== What do we need? ==
Line 39: Line 41:
 
*some tools to '''change the sources'''
 
*some tools to '''change the sources'''
  
[http://astyle.sourceforge.net/ astyle] is a pretty tool to make such changes. But astyle doesn't implement (yet) all the specification rules.
+
 
 +
[http://astyle.sourceforge.net/ astyle] is a very suitable tool to make such changes. But astyle doesn't implement (yet) all the specification rules.
  
 
You can find below some awk-scripts which help us to check all the rules.
 
You can find below some awk-scripts which help us to check all the rules.
Line 48: Line 51:
 
== The specification rules of coding style for kdepim and akonadi ==
 
== The specification rules of coding style for kdepim and akonadi ==
  
*Identation with four spaces, don't use any <TAB>s
+
These are the sub-sections under '''The rules and the scripts ...'''
*Trim the lines
+
*Only single empty lines
+
*The first line, the last line(s) may not be empty
+
*Only one statement per line
+
*Variable declaration
+
*Only one declaration per line
+
*Use a space after each keyword, but not after a cast
+
*Use a space after the name of the class
+
*include directive
+
*Place '''*''' and '''&''' near the variable
+
*Use '''namespace foo {''' in the same line
+
*Each member initialization of a method in a separate line
+
*Surround all operators with spaces
+
*'''switch''' rules
+
*'''if''', '''for''', '''while''' and similar macros rules
+
*'''typedef''' statement over more lines
+
*Don't use '''&,''' without a variable
+
*Don't use untyped '''enum'''
+
*Don't use '''enum''' with empty member
+
*No ''';''' after some macros
+
*No "one line" '''if''' '''for''' '''while''' statement
+
*No code after '''{'''
+
*No code before '''}'' (but else)
+
*No header and body code in the same line, even empty body
+
*No space between some keywords
+
*No space around the index of an array
+
*No space around an expression surrounded with braces
+
*No space before ''':''' in a case statement
+
*No space before ''';''' at the end of statement
+
  
 
== Migration ==
 
== Migration ==
Line 84: Line 58:
 
be reviewed to follow the coding style.  This will be done over a long time,
 
be reviewed to follow the coding style.  This will be done over a long time,
 
directory after directory, for each of the
 
directory after directory, for each of the
rules defined above.  For each rule, one can find one or two script(s).
+
rules defined above.  For each rule, there are one or two script(s).
  
 
The main part of the changes can be done with astyle:
 
The main part of the changes can be done with astyle:
 
http://astyle.sourceforge.net/
 
http://astyle.sourceforge.net/
  
The results can be seen [[here]].
+
The results can be seen [http://techbase.kde.org/ResultsOfTheMigration here].
 +
 
 +
== Download Coding Style ==
 +
 
 +
You can download the software with test files and install instructions.
 +
 
 +
Download Coding Style: [[Media:CodingStyle.tar.gz]]
  
 
== Two scripts '''to check all the rules''' and '''to make the all the changes''' ==
 
== Two scripts '''to check all the rules''' and '''to make the all the changes''' ==
  
Most of the rules can be check with the scripts below.
+
Most of the rules can be checked with the scripts below.
For some of the rules, we don't have a script to change the sources. It is better to make first a check for such a rule, make the modification(s) to suscript the rule(s) before using the change-script(s).
+
For some of the rules, we don't have a script to change the sources.
 +
It is better first to make a check for such a rule, second to make the modification(s) manually to suscript the rule(s).
  
If one wants all-in-one scripts, please use:
+
There are two scripts that run all the checks and apply all the changes at once:
 
*All-Check.sh
 
*All-Check.sh
 
*Change-All.sh
 
*Change-All.sh
  
Download the scripts: [[Media:ALL-Coding-Style.tar.gz]]
+
For each specification rule, the name of the scripts to check and apply the changes
 +
are given at the beginning of the section.
  
== The scripts '''to check''' and '''to make the changes''' ==
+
== The rules and the scripts '''to check''' and '''to make the changes''' ==
  
The first script is '''to check''' a single file or a complete directory for all .h and
+
The first script is '''to check''' a single file or all .h and .cpp files in a directory.
.cpp files.
+
  
If present, the second script '''makes the changes''' for a single file or a complete
+
If present, the second script '''applies the changes'''.
directory for all .h and .cpp files.  For some complicated situations, the
+
For some complicated situations, the script makes no change.
script makes no change.
+
  
One can use the scripts for own work.It is recommanded to use them in this order.
+
You can use the scripts for your own work. It is recommended to use them in this order.
  
 
=== Don't test all directories ===
 
=== Don't test all directories ===
Line 119: Line 99:
 
If a '''.no_recursion''' file is present on a directory, we do not explore the subdirectory(ies)
 
If a '''.no_recursion''' file is present on a directory, we do not explore the subdirectory(ies)
  
=== Identation with four spaces, don't use any <TAB>s ===
+
=== Indentation with four spaces, don't use any <TAB>s ===
  
*coding-style-check-Tabs.sh
+
*Tabs-check.sh
 +
*Tabs.awk
 
*The changes are well done with
 
*The changes are well done with
{{Output| 1=astyle --indent=spaces
+
{{Output| 1=astyle --indent=spaces=4
}}
+
 
+
Download the scripts: [[Media:Tabs.tar.gz]]
+
 
+
The output of the '''check''' script is:
+
{{Output|1=check the file ktnefparser.cpp
+
308: Tab at 16:  stream_ >> i;              // i <- attribute type & name
+
311: Tab at 16:  stream_ >> i;              // i <- data length
+
326: Tab at 22:  case attATTACHMENT:        // try to get attachment info
+
367: Tab at 16:  stream_ >> u;      // u <- checksum
+
 
}}
 
}}
 
 
This shows:
 
* the name of the file which is under test.
 
* the line number, the position found and the line itself.
 
  
 
=== Trim the lines ===
 
=== Trim the lines ===
  
*coding-style-check-Trim.sh
+
*Trim-check.sh
 +
*Trim.awk
 
*The changes are well done with:
 
*The changes are well done with:
 
{{Output| 1=astyle --indent=spaces
 
{{Output| 1=astyle --indent=spaces
 
}}
 
}}
 
Download the scripts: [[Media:Trim.tar.gz]]
 
 
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 
{{Output|1=check the file trim.cpp
 
51: Space(s) at end of line (28):  QVariant m_matchData;
 
}}
 
 
 
This shows:
 
* the name of the file which is under test.
 
* the line number, the position found and the line itself.
 
  
 
=== Only single empty lines ===
 
=== Only single empty lines ===
 
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Whitespace
 
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Whitespace
  
*coding-style-check-Twice.sh
+
*Twice-check.sh
*coding-style-change-Twice.sh
+
*Twice-change.sh
* astyle cannot (yet) do it
+
*Twice.awk
 
+
Download the scripts: [[Media:Twice.tar.gz]]
+
 
+
The output of the '''check''' script is:
+
{{Output|1=check the file enclosure.cpp
+
25: next empty line found
+
26: next empty line found
+
30: next empty line found
+
}}
+
   
+
This shows:
+
* the name of the file which is under test.
+
* the line numbers.
+
 
+
The '''change''' script:
+
*removes all the next empty line(s).
+
 
+
=== First line, last line(s) may not be empty ===
+
 
+
Some of the sources have a first empty lines, some have one or more empty last line(s).
+
*coding-style-check-First-Last.sh
+
*coding-style-change-First-Last.sh
+
*astyle cannot (yet) do it
+
  
Download the scripts: [[Media:First.tar.gz]]
+
=== The first line and the last line(s) may not be empty ===
  
The output of the '''check''' script is:
+
Some of the sources have empty lines at the beginning of the file. Some have one or more empty last line(s).
{{Output|1=check the file trim.cpp
+
*First-check.sh
The first line is empty
+
*First-change.sh
The last line is empty}}
+
*First.awk
   
+
The '''change''' script:
+
*removes the first line if empty, all the last empty line(s).
+
  
 
=== Only one statement per line ===
 
=== Only one statement per line ===
Line 218: Line 149:
 
For most of the keywords, it is not necessary to make a test. Because the sources have been already compiled. For example this code never appear in a compiled source:
 
For most of the keywords, it is not necessary to make a test. Because the sources have been already compiled. For example this code never appear in a compiled source:
 
{{Output|1=intmyVariableAa;
 
{{Output|1=intmyVariableAa;
floatmyVariableAb;}}
+
floatmyVariableBb;}}
 +
 
 +
In this case, the missing space leads to a syntax error which is detected by the compiler. We don't need to check this manually.
  
 
Some of the keywords are alone in the statement, such as '''break''' and '''continue'''. No test is necessary.
 
Some of the keywords are alone in the statement, such as '''break''' and '''continue'''. No test is necessary.
Line 226: Line 159:
  
 
These are:
 
These are:
'''alignas decltype alignof noexcept typeid asm static_assert switch if catch while for sizeof new Q_FOREACH do try enum union Q_FOREVER bool char char16_t char32_t double float int long wchar_t signed unsigned short'''
+
'''alignas decltype alignof noexcept typeid asm static_assert switch if catch while for foreach sizeof new Q_FOREACH FOREACH do try enum union Q_FOREVER bool char char16_t char32_t double float int long wchar_t signed unsigned short'''
 
+
For only '''one''' keyword:
+
*coding-style-check-SpaceAfterKeyword.sh
+
*coding-style-change-SpaceAfterKeyword.sh
+
 
+
 
+
For '''all''' keywords above:
+
*coding-style-check-SpaceAfter.sh
+
*coding-style-change-SpaceAfter.sh
+
  
 +
*SpaceAfter-check.sh
 +
*SpaceAfter-change.sh
 +
*SpaceAfter.awk
  
 
=== Use a space after the name of the class ===
 
=== Use a space after the name of the class ===
Line 246: Line 173:
 
};}}
 
};}}
  
*coding-style-check-Public.sh
+
*Public-check.sh
*coding-style-change-Public.sh
+
*Public-change.sh
*astyle cannot (yet) do it
+
*Public.awk
 
+
Download the scripts: [[Media:Public.tar.gz]]
+
 
+
Download the scripts: [[Media:SpaceAfter.tar.gz]]
+
 
+
The output of the '''check''' script is:
+
{{Output|1=check the file contactstreemodel.cpp
+
98:  if( at 10:          if(contact.realName().isEmpty()) {
+
99:  if( at 12:            if(contact.preferredEmail().isEmpty()) {
+
}}
+
 
+
The '''change''' script:
+
*puts a space after the keyword.
+
  
 
=== #include directive ===
 
=== #include directive ===
Line 272: Line 186:
 
# include <A/b>
 
# include <A/b>
  
// we prefer, to unify the coding style
+
// we prefer to unify the coding style
 
#include <A/b>}}
 
#include <A/b>}}
  
*coding-style-check-Space-Include.sh
+
*Space-Include-check.sh
 
+
*SpaceInclude.awk
Download the scripts: [[Media:Space-Include.tar.gz]]
+
  
=== Place '''*''' and '''&''' near the variable ===
+
=== Place '''*''' and '''&''' next to the variable ===
  
 
The declaration S *D; declares D as a pointer to the type determined by decl-specifier-seq S.
 
The declaration S *D; declares D as a pointer to the type determined by decl-specifier-seq S.
  
The most compilers do not make any difference for such lines of code:
+
For most compilers, the three declarations below are semantically the same:
  
 
{{Output|1=int *a;
 
{{Output|1=int *a;
Line 317: Line 230:
 
Not all the ouputs are real errors. Some codings might be correct.
 
Not all the ouputs are real errors. Some codings might be correct.
  
*coding-style-check-NO-Space.sh
+
*NoSpace-check.sh
 +
*NoSpace.awk
 
*using astyle to make the changes:
 
*using astyle to make the changes:
 
{{Output| 1=astyle --reference=name --align-pointer=name
 
{{Output| 1=astyle --reference=name --align-pointer=name
Line 323: Line 237:
  
  
Some lines with "type & name..." must be manually corrected.
+
Some lines with must be manually corrected.
  
Download the scripts: [[Media:NO-Space.tar.gz]]
+
=== Use '''namespace foo {''' in the same line ===
  
The script gives informations about the found line(s).
+
We prefer having all in one line:
 +
{{Output|1=namespace foo {
 +
  ...
 +
}
 +
}}
  
=== Use '''namespace foo {''' in the same line ===
+
*Namespace-check.sh
 +
*Namespace.awk
 +
*astyle to make the changes.
  
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
+
=== Use '''struct foo''' with '''{''' at the next line ===
 +
 
 +
We prefer having the same coding style for a '''class''' and a '''struct'''
 +
{{Output|1=struct foo
 +
{
 +
  ...
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
*Struct-check.sh
 +
*Struct-change.sh
 +
*Struct.awk
 +
 
 +
NOTE: The script must be use after astyle.
  
 
=== Each member initialization of a method in separate line ===
 
=== Each member initialization of a method in separate line ===
  
This example shows the indentation we prefer:
+
This example shows the indentation we prefer. Notice that colon sign and comma(s)
 +
are at the beginning of each initialization line(s):
  
{{Output|1=class myClass {
+
{{Output|1=class myClass
 +
{
 
     // some lines
 
     // some lines
 
public:
 
public:
Line 348: Line 283:
 
     // more lines
 
     // more lines
 
}
 
}
 +
};
 
}}
 
}}
  
*coding-style-check-Default-1.sh
+
*Default-check.sh
*coding-style-check-Default-2.sh
+
*Default-change.sh
*coding-style-change-Default-1.sh
+
*Default.awk
*coding-style-change-Default-2.sh
+
*astyle cannot (yet) do it
+
 
+
Download the scripts: [[Media:Default.tar.gz]]
+
  
 
=== Surround all operators with spaces ===
 
=== Surround all operators with spaces ===
Line 375: Line 307:
 
     // some lines
 
     // some lines
 
     break;
 
     break;
 +
}
 +
case ''three'': {
 +
    // some lines
 +
    return;
 
}
 
}
 
default:
 
default:
Line 382: Line 318:
 
}}
 
}}
  
*coding-style-check-Switch.sh
+
*Switch-check.sh
*astyle
+
*Switch.awk
 +
*astyle makes the changes
  
Download the scripts: [[Media:Switch.tar.gz]]
+
NOTE: By using a new block, we prefer having '''break;''' and '''return;''' within the new block.
  
 
=== '''try-catch''' rules ===
 
=== '''try-catch''' rules ===
Line 397: Line 334:
 
}}
 
}}
  
*coding-style-check-Try.sh
+
*TryCatch-check.sh
 +
*TryCatch.awk
  
Download the scripts: [[Media:Try.tar.gz]]
+
=== '''if''', '''else''', '''for''', '''while''' (and similar macros) rules ===
  
=== '''if''', '''for''', '''while''' (and similar macros) rules ===
+
Even for blocks with only one statement, we prefer to use braces such as:
 
+
Even for block with only one statement, we prefer to use braces such as:
+
  
 
{{Output|1=if (''condition'') {
 
{{Output|1=if (''condition'') {
Line 410: Line 346:
 
}}
 
}}
  
This should be used with the keywords '''if''', '''for''', '''while''' and similar macros.
+
This should be used with the keywords '''if''', '''else''', '''for''', '''while''' and similar macros.
The output of the '''check''' script is:
+
  
{{Output|1=check the file test-if.cpp
+
*If-check.sh
62: if without { at end of line:    if ( collection.cachePolicyLocalParts() )
+
*Else-check.sh
}}
+
*For-check.sh
 +
*While-check.sh
 +
*If.awk
 +
*Else.awk
 +
*For.awk
 +
*While.awk
 +
*astyle makes the changes.
  
*coding-style-check-If.sh
 
*astyle
 
  
Download the scripts: [[Media:If.tar.gz]]
+
But we get some false alarm with statements that extend over more than one line:
 
+
But we get some false alarm with statement over more than one line:
+
  
 
{{Output|1=if (''condition_1''
 
{{Output|1=if (''condition_1''
Line 430: Line 367:
 
}}
 
}}
  
=== '''typedef''' statement over more lines ===
+
=== '''typedef struct''' statement over more lines ===
  
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
+
This example shows the indentation we prefer:
  
=== Don't use '''&''', without a variable ===
+
{{Output|1=typedef struct foo {
 +
    // some lines
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
*TypedefStruct-check.sh
 +
*TypeStruct.awk
 +
 
 +
=== Don't use '''&''' without a variable ===
 +
 
 +
It is more readable to have the name of (all) the variable(s) in the first line of a method.
 +
 
 +
The chnages must be done manually.
  
 
=== Don't use untyped '''enum''' ===
 
=== Don't use untyped '''enum''' ===
Line 446: Line 395:
 
{{Output|1=#define aElement 123
 
{{Output|1=#define aElement 123
 
}}
 
}}
 
Download the scripts: [[Media:Enum.tar.gz]]
 
  
 
=== Don't use '''enum''' with empty member ===
 
=== Don't use '''enum''' with empty member ===
Line 459: Line 406:
 
}}
 
}}
  
The last element is empty.  
+
The last element is empty.
 
We prefer a "pedantic" code such as:
 
We prefer a "pedantic" code such as:
  
Line 468: Line 415:
 
}}
 
}}
  
*coding-style-check-Enum-Pedantic.sh
+
*EnumPedantic-check.sh
 
+
*EnumPedantic.awk
The output of the '''check''' script is:
+
{{Output|1=check the file enum-example.cpp
+
enum with ,} found at
+
3->    bElement,
+
4->  }
+
}}
+
 
+
Download the scripts: [[Media:Enum-Pedantic.tar.gz]]
+
  
 
=== No ''';''' after some macros ===
 
=== No ''';''' after some macros ===
Line 485: Line 424:
 
The script make a check over all these:
 
The script make a check over all these:
 
'''AKTEST_MAIN;MAKE_CMD_ROW;Q_DECLARE_FLAGS;Q_PRIVATE_SLOT;Q_DECLARE_METATYPE;Q_DECLARE_OPERATORS_FOR_FLAGS;Q_DE
 
'''AKTEST_MAIN;MAKE_CMD_ROW;Q_DECLARE_FLAGS;Q_PRIVATE_SLOT;Q_DECLARE_METATYPE;Q_DECLARE_OPERATORS_FOR_FLAGS;Q_DE
CLARE_PRIVATE;Q_DECLARE_PUBLIC;Q_DISABLE_COPY;K_GLOBAL_STATIC;Q_IMPORT_PLUGIN;Q_PROPERTY;Q_UNUSED;QTEST_KDEMAIN;QTEST_MAIN'''
+
CLARE_PRIVATE;Q_DECLARE_PUBLIC;Q_DISABLE_COPY;K_GLOBAL_STATIC;Q_IMPORT_PLUGIN;Q_PROPERTY;QTEST_KDEMAIN;QTEST_MAIN'''
  
*coding-style-check-Pedantic.sh
+
*Pedantic-check.sh
*astyle cannot (yet) do it
+
*Pedantic.awk
  
Download the scripts: [[Media:Pedantic.tar.gz]]
+
=== No "one line" '''if''', '''else''', '''for''' or '''while''' statement ===
 
+
=== No "one line" '''if''' '''for''' '''while''' statement ===
+
  
 
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Braces
 
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Braces
Line 510: Line 447:
 
we can't make the changes automatically.
 
we can't make the changes automatically.
  
*coding-style-check-OneLine-If.sh
+
*OneLine-If.sh
 
+
*OneLine-Else.sh
Download the scripts: [[Media:One-Line-If.tar.gz]]
+
*If.awk
 
+
*Else.awk
The output of the '''check''' script is:
+
{{Output|1=check the file if-example.cpp
+
25: one-line-if found
+
}}
+
  
 
=== No space between some keywords ===
 
=== No space between some keywords ===
  
 
We don't want to have a space:
 
We don't want to have a space:
*after a '''*''' (star), but at the multiplication
 
 
*between '''&''' and '''>'''
 
*between '''&''' and '''>'''
 
*between '''*''' and '''>'''
 
*between '''*''' and '''>'''
 
*between '''(''' and ''')''', an empty parameter list.
 
*between '''(''' and ''')''', an empty parameter list.
  
*coding-style-check-No-Space.sh
+
*NoSpace-check.sh
 
+
*NoSpace.awk
The output of the '''check''' script is:
+
{{Output|1=check the file NO-space-example.cpp
+
15: Star<Space> found. Check it.  int * myA;
+
28: AND<Space> found. Check it.  abc( & myA);
+
}}
+
 
+
Download the scripts: [[Media:NO-space.tar.gz]]
+
  
 
=== No space around the index of an array ===
 
=== No space around the index of an array ===
Line 541: Line 466:
 
We don't want to have spaces around the index of an array element.
 
We don't want to have spaces around the index of an array element.
  
*coding-style-check-No-Space.sh
+
*SpaceInArray-check.sh
 
+
*SpaceInArray-change.sh
The output of the '''check''' script is:
+
*SpaceInArray.awk
{{Output|1=check the file NO-space-example.cpp
+
15: [<Space> found. Check it.  a = b[ i ];
+
15: <Space>] found. Check it.  a = b[ i ];
+
}}
+
 
+
Download the scripts: [[Media:NO-space.tar.gz]]
+
  
 
=== No space around an expression surrounded with braces ===
 
=== No space around an expression surrounded with braces ===
Line 555: Line 474:
 
We prefer function definition and function call with no space after the opening brace and before the closing brace.
 
We prefer function definition and function call with no space after the opening brace and before the closing brace.
  
*coding-style-check-Parenthesis.sh
+
*Parenthesis-check.sh
 +
*Parenthesis.awk
 
*This is well done with astyle:
 
*This is well done with astyle:
 
{{Output| 1=astyle --unpad-paren
 
{{Output| 1=astyle --unpad-paren
 
}}
 
}}
 +
 
Note that astyle makes also changes within the macros SIGNAL and SLOT, which aren't desired.
 
Note that astyle makes also changes within the macros SIGNAL and SLOT, which aren't desired.
 
This can be corrected with a Qt-utility qt5/qtrepotools/util/normalize/normalize:
 
This can be corrected with a Qt-utility qt5/qtrepotools/util/normalize/normalize:
 
{{Output| 1=normalize --modify ''filename''
 
{{Output| 1=normalize --modify ''filename''
 
}}
 
}}
 
Download the scripts: [[Media:Parenthesis.tar.gz]]
 
  
 
=== No space before ''':''' in a case statement ===
 
=== No space before ''':''' in a case statement ===
Line 574: Line 493:
 
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
 
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
  
== Use all the scripts ==
+
=== No ''');''' alone in a line ===
  
All the scripts can be used with one only script.
+
This is sometime to be find with a function call with many arguments, listed on many lines.
 +
*ParenthesisAlone-check.sh
 +
*ParenthesisAlone.awk
  
Download the scripts: [[Media:All.tar.gz]]
+
=== No space before a comma ===
  
=== put the comments away, change the strings, don't read the directive ===
+
This is sometime to be found in a function call.
  
The comments might contain some keyword. It is very difficult to avoid the confusion with the very simple awk-scripts. We prefer to change all the comments with the same number of empty lines.
+
*SpaceComma-check.sh
It is very difficult to parse the strings correctly, so we prefer to change them to an empty string.
+
*SpaceComma.awk
The same with the directive, so we prefer to change them to an empty line.
+
  
*CoStrDef.awk
+
=== Operator overloading ===
  
Download the scripts: [[Media:CoStrDef.tar.gz]]
+
As written at:
 +
 
 +
http://www.drbio.cornell.edu/pl47/programming/TICPP-2nd-ed-Vol-one-html/Chapter12.html
 +
 
 +
"... Defining an overloaded operator is like defining a function, but the name of that function is operator@, in which @ represents the operator that’s being overloaded. ..."
 +
 
 +
Some sources use a space after the reserved word operator. We prefer to use the syntax without space.
 +
 
 +
*Operator-check.sh
 +
*Operator-change.sh
 +
*Operator.awk
 +
 
 +
== Use all the scripts ==
 +
 
 +
All the scripts can be used with one only script.
  
 
== Check the objects and the libs ==
 
== Check the objects and the libs ==
  
As a first approach, not any object may have binary change after applying one of the rules.
+
Since the changes described above are only coding style changes, they are ignored by the compiler.
To check this, one uses the '''Md5sum-the-Objects.sh'''. Download the script: [[Media:Md5sum-the-Objects.sh.gz]]
+
Therefore, the result of the compilation is expected to be exactly the same after applying any of the rules.
Same for the libs. Use the '''Md5sum-the-Libs.sh'''. Download the script: [[Media:Md5sum-the-Libs.sh.gz]]
+
 
 +
To check this, one uses the '''Md5sum-the-Objects.sh'''.
 +
Same for the libs. Use the '''Md5sum-the-Libs.sh'''.
  
 
The script can be used with one of the commands:
 
The script can be used with one of the commands:
Line 646: Line 582:
  
 
== Check the assembler files ==
 
== Check the assembler files ==
If we add or remove some lines, the debug informations included in the object file will be change also.
+
If we add or remove some lines, the debug information included in the object file will change also.
  
 
This is the case with the test/change of "''Only single empty lines should be used''", "''First line, last line(s) may not be empty''" and some more test/change below (''adding some blocks'' with { and }).
 
This is the case with the test/change of "''Only single empty lines should be used''", "''First line, last line(s) may not be empty''" and some more test/change below (''adding some blocks'' with { and }).
Line 653: Line 589:
 
We have to compare the assembler files.
 
We have to compare the assembler files.
 
This works pretty well for the version with '''CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE''' set to ''release''.
 
This works pretty well for the version with '''CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE''' set to ''release''.
For the version with '''CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE''' set to ''debug'', we must remove all the debug informations before the comparision could take place.
+
For the version with '''CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE''' set to ''debug'', we must remove all the debug information before the comparision can take place.
  
 
=== Generate the assembler files ===
 
=== Generate the assembler files ===
Line 662: Line 598:
 
duplicates the line, add a ''-S option'' and changes the name of the output to ''somename.s''.
 
duplicates the line, add a ''-S option'' and changes the name of the output to ''somename.s''.
 
After a new ''make'' command, we can save all the assembler files with the script '''Check-the-assembler_code.sh'''.
 
After a new ''make'' command, we can save all the assembler files with the script '''Check-the-assembler_code.sh'''.
Download the script: [[Media:Prepare-build_make_files.gz]]
 
  
=== Remove the debug informations ===
+
=== Remove the debug information ===
  
The debug informations change with the changes of line numbers.
+
The debug information changes with the changes of line numbers.
We drop all these debug informations before making the test.
+
We drop all the debug information before making the test.
  
 
The script to check the assembler files can be used in the same way as the one above (Check-the-Objects.sh).
 
The script to check the assembler files can be used in the same way as the one above (Check-the-Objects.sh).
To check this, one uses the '''Check-the-assembler_code.sh'''. Download the script: [[Media:Check-the-assembler_code.sh.gz]]
+
To check this, one uses the '''Check-the-assembler_code.sh'''.
  
 
The script can be used with one of the commands:
 
The script can be used with one of the commands:
Line 679: Line 614:
 
== The results of the migration ==
 
== The results of the migration ==
  
The results can be seen [[here]].
+
The results can be seen [http://techbase.kde.org/ResultsOfTheMigration here].

Latest revision as of 17:56, 4 November 2014

Contents

[edit] Purpose of this document

This document describes the recommended coding style for kdepim and akonadi. Nobody is forced to use this style, but to have consistent formatting of the source code files it is strongly recommended to make use of it.

In short: Kdepim and akonadi coding style follows the Kdelibs coding style.

But we have some more rules for some more situations.

[edit] Why is coding Style useful?

Let us make a comparision with real life. To make an addition, one can write:

123
+      456
  ==========
     =      579

But we have learned in primary school to write:

Addition
  123
 +456
 ====
 =579

Which is much more readable, easy to control (or debug).

This is Coding Style: not mandatory, but very useful and pretty to read.

[edit] What do we need?

We need at least:

  • a specification (a set of rules) for the coding style of the sources
  • some tools to check the sources against the specification
  • some tools to change the sources


astyle is a very suitable tool to make such changes. But astyle doesn't implement (yet) all the specification rules.

You can find below some awk-scripts which help us to check all the rules.

You can find below some awk-scripts which help us to make most of the changes. The last part must be done manually.

[edit] The specification rules of coding style for kdepim and akonadi

These are the sub-sections under The rules and the scripts ...

[edit] Migration

As discussed at the KDEPIM meeting, Berlin, 3 March 2013, all the files of KDEPIM will be reviewed to follow the coding style. This will be done over a long time, directory after directory, for each of the rules defined above. For each rule, there are one or two script(s).

The main part of the changes can be done with astyle: http://astyle.sourceforge.net/

The results can be seen here.

[edit] Download Coding Style

You can download the software with test files and install instructions.

Download Coding Style: Media:CodingStyle.tar.gz

[edit] Two scripts to check all the rules and to make the all the changes

Most of the rules can be checked with the scripts below. For some of the rules, we don't have a script to change the sources. It is better first to make a check for such a rule, second to make the modification(s) manually to suscript the rule(s).

There are two scripts that run all the checks and apply all the changes at once:

  • All-Check.sh
  • Change-All.sh

For each specification rule, the name of the scripts to check and apply the changes are given at the beginning of the section.

[edit] The rules and the scripts to check and to make the changes

The first script is to check a single file or all .h and .cpp files in a directory.

If present, the second script applies the changes. For some complicated situations, the script makes no change.

You can use the scripts for your own work. It is recommended to use them in this order.

[edit] Don't test all directories

If a .no_coding_style file is present on a directory, the test will not be done.

If a .no_recursion file is present on a directory, we do not explore the subdirectory(ies)

[edit] Indentation with four spaces, don't use any <TAB>s

  • Tabs-check.sh
  • Tabs.awk
  • The changes are well done with
astyle --indent=spaces=4

[edit] Trim the lines

  • Trim-check.sh
  • Trim.awk
  • The changes are well done with:
astyle --indent=spaces

[edit] Only single empty lines

Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Whitespace

  • Twice-check.sh
  • Twice-change.sh
  • Twice.awk

[edit] The first line and the last line(s) may not be empty

Some of the sources have empty lines at the beginning of the file. Some have one or more empty last line(s).

  • First-check.sh
  • First-change.sh
  • First.awk

[edit] Only one statement per line

We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.

[edit] Variable declaration

We follow the kdelibs rule: [[1]] We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.

[edit] Only one declaration per line

We follow the kdelibs rule: [[2]] We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.

[edit] Use one space after each keyword, but not after a cast

Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Whitespace

For most of the keywords, it is not necessary to make a test. Because the sources have been already compiled. For example this code never appear in a compiled source:

intmyVariableAa;
floatmyVariableBb;

In this case, the missing space leads to a syntax error which is detected by the compiler. We don't need to check this manually.

Some of the keywords are alone in the statement, such as break and continue. No test is necessary.

The only tests we have to do are the ones where a keyword is (or can be) followed by a sign ( { [ :

These are: alignas decltype alignof noexcept typeid asm static_assert switch if catch while for foreach sizeof new Q_FOREACH FOREACH do try enum union Q_FOREVER bool char char16_t char32_t double float int long wchar_t signed unsigned short

  • SpaceAfter-check.sh
  • SpaceAfter-change.sh
  • SpaceAfter.awk

[edit] Use a space after the name of the class

We prefer having a space before the keyword public at the definition of a new class:

class DbException : public Akonadi::Exception
{
  ...
};
  • Public-check.sh
  • Public-change.sh
  • Public.awk

[edit] #include directive

Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Qt_Includes

We prefer no space at the beginning of the directive. Some (not many) files need to be corrected to unify to all the other files.

// some files use this
# include <A/b>

// we prefer to unify the coding style
#include <A/b>
  • Space-Include-check.sh
  • SpaceInclude.awk

[edit] Place * and & next to the variable

The declaration S *D; declares D as a pointer to the type determined by decl-specifier-seq S.

For most compilers, the three declarations below are semantically the same:

int *a;
int* b;
int * c

We prefer the first one, without a space beetwen the star and the name of the variable:

int *a;

The same rule may be use for:

myFunction(int &a, int& b, int & c)
{
    // some lines
}

We prefer:

myFunction(int &a, int &b, int &c)

The awk-script checks also the occurences of:

  • &,
  • & >
  • * >
  • ( ) and ( ) empty function call
  • enum { untyped enum

Not all the ouputs are real errors. Some codings might be correct.

  • NoSpace-check.sh
  • NoSpace.awk
  • using astyle to make the changes:
astyle --reference=name --align-pointer=name


Some lines with must be manually corrected.

[edit] Use namespace foo { in the same line

We prefer having all in one line:

namespace foo {
  ...
}
  • Namespace-check.sh
  • Namespace.awk
  • astyle to make the changes.

[edit] Use struct foo with { at the next line

We prefer having the same coding style for a class and a struct

struct foo
{
  ...
}
  • Struct-check.sh
  • Struct-change.sh
  • Struct.awk

NOTE: The script must be use after astyle.

[edit] Each member initialization of a method in separate line

This example shows the indentation we prefer. Notice that colon sign and comma(s) are at the beginning of each initialization line(s):

class myClass
{
    // some lines
public:
    myClass(int r, int b, int i, int j)
        : r(0)
        , b(i)
        , i(5)
        , j(13)
{
    // more lines
}
};
  • Default-check.sh
  • Default-change.sh
  • Default.awk

[edit] Surround all operators with spaces

This is well done with astyle:

astyle --pad-oper

[edit] switch rules

This example shows the indentation we prefer:

switch (a) {
case one:
    // some lines
    break;
case two: {
    // some lines
    break;
}
case three: {
    // some lines
    return;
}
default:
    // some lines
    break;
}
  • Switch-check.sh
  • Switch.awk
  • astyle makes the changes

NOTE: By using a new block, we prefer having break; and return; within the new block.

[edit] try-catch rules

This example shows the indentation we prefer:

try {
    // some lines
} catch (...) {
}
  • TryCatch-check.sh
  • TryCatch.awk

[edit] if, else, for, while (and similar macros) rules

Even for blocks with only one statement, we prefer to use braces such as:

if (condition) {
    statement;
}

This should be used with the keywords if, else, for, while and similar macros.

  • If-check.sh
  • Else-check.sh
  • For-check.sh
  • While-check.sh
  • If.awk
  • Else.awk
  • For.awk
  • While.awk
  • astyle makes the changes.


But we get some false alarm with statements that extend over more than one line:

if (condition_1
    && condition_2) {
    statement;
}

[edit] typedef struct statement over more lines

This example shows the indentation we prefer:

typedef struct foo {
    // some lines
}
  • TypedefStruct-check.sh
  • TypeStruct.awk

[edit] Don't use & without a variable

It is more readable to have the name of (all) the variable(s) in the first line of a method.

The chnages must be done manually.

[edit] Don't use untyped enum

Instead of having an untyped enum such as:

enum {
    aElement= 123
}

we prefer a #define directive:

#define aElement 123

[edit] Don't use enum with empty member

The most compilers do not complain such a code:

enum mytype {
    aElement,
    bElement,
}

The last element is empty. We prefer a "pedantic" code such as:

enum mytype {
    aElement,
    bElement
}
  • EnumPedantic-check.sh
  • EnumPedantic.awk

[edit] No ; after some macros

Looking over the git-history, one can find some "pedantic" changes. These are changes to make a better code. The most of them are at the use of macro, where it is not necessary to have a ; at the end ofthe command. The script make a check over all these: AKTEST_MAIN;MAKE_CMD_ROW;Q_DECLARE_FLAGS;Q_PRIVATE_SLOT;Q_DECLARE_METATYPE;Q_DECLARE_OPERATORS_FOR_FLAGS;Q_DE CLARE_PRIVATE;Q_DECLARE_PUBLIC;Q_DISABLE_COPY;K_GLOBAL_STATIC;Q_IMPORT_PLUGIN;Q_PROPERTY;QTEST_KDEMAIN;QTEST_MAIN

  • Pedantic-check.sh
  • Pedantic.awk

[edit] No "one line" if, else, for or while statement

Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Braces

The following code:

if (a > b) c = 123;

is correct, but we prefer the block:

if (a > b) {
   c = 123;
}

which is easier to debug, to read and to modify.

It is also possible to put a breakpoint at the line in the block.

As the awk-script is too simple to recognize all the if-statements, we get some false alarm and we can't make the changes automatically.

  • OneLine-If.sh
  • OneLine-Else.sh
  • If.awk
  • Else.awk

[edit] No space between some keywords

We don't want to have a space:

  • between & and >
  • between * and >
  • between ( and ), an empty parameter list.
  • NoSpace-check.sh
  • NoSpace.awk

[edit] No space around the index of an array

We don't want to have spaces around the index of an array element.

  • SpaceInArray-check.sh
  • SpaceInArray-change.sh
  • SpaceInArray.awk

[edit] No space around an expression surrounded with braces

We prefer function definition and function call with no space after the opening brace and before the closing brace.

  • Parenthesis-check.sh
  • Parenthesis.awk
  • This is well done with astyle:
astyle --unpad-paren

Note that astyle makes also changes within the macros SIGNAL and SLOT, which aren't desired. This can be corrected with a Qt-utility qt5/qtrepotools/util/normalize/normalize:

normalize --modify filename

[edit] No space before : in a case statement

We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.

[edit] No space before ; at the end of statement

We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.

[edit] No ); alone in a line

This is sometime to be find with a function call with many arguments, listed on many lines.

  • ParenthesisAlone-check.sh
  • ParenthesisAlone.awk

[edit] No space before a comma

This is sometime to be found in a function call.

  • SpaceComma-check.sh
  • SpaceComma.awk

[edit] Operator overloading

As written at:

http://www.drbio.cornell.edu/pl47/programming/TICPP-2nd-ed-Vol-one-html/Chapter12.html

"... Defining an overloaded operator is like defining a function, but the name of that function is operator@, in which @ represents the operator that’s being overloaded. ..."

Some sources use a space after the reserved word operator. We prefer to use the syntax without space.

  • Operator-check.sh
  • Operator-change.sh
  • Operator.awk

[edit] Use all the scripts

All the scripts can be used with one only script.

[edit] Check the objects and the libs

Since the changes described above are only coding style changes, they are ignored by the compiler. Therefore, the result of the compilation is expected to be exactly the same after applying any of the rules.

To check this, one uses the Md5sum-the-Objects.sh. Same for the libs. Use the Md5sum-the-Libs.sh.

The script can be used with one of the commands:

  • save
  • test
  • clean

An example:

cd <some_kdepim_directory>
mkdir build
cd build
ccmake ../
make
Scanning dependencies of target gpgmepp
[  0%] Building CXX object gpgme++/CMakeFiles/gpgmepp.dir/gpgmepp_automoc.cpp.o
[  0%] Building CXX object gpgme++/CMakeFiles/gpgmepp.dir/exception.cpp.o
[  0%] Building CXX object gpgme++/CMakeFiles/gpgmepp.dir/context.cpp.o
...
Check-the-Objects.sh save

The script makes a copy of all the objects and a "time stamp":

save the object ./kholidays/tests/CMakeFiles/testzodiac.dir/testzodiac.cpp.o
save the object ./kholidays/tests/CMakeFiles/testzodiac.dir/testzodiac_automoc.cpp.o
...
all objects are saved

Now, one makes somes change(s) on the source(s) and:

make

Depending on the Makefile, some objects will be compiled again:

Scanning dependencies of target akonadi-kde
[ 17%] Building CXX object akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/entitytreeview.cpp.o
[ 17%] Building CXX object akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/itemfetchjob.cpp.o
[ 17%] Building CXX object akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/statisticsproxymodel.cpp.o
...
Scanning dependencies of target akonadi-kmime
[ 56%] Building CXX object akonadi/kmime/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kmime.dir/standardmailactionmanager.cpp.o
Check-the-Objects.sh test

The script finds all the new objects, makes a comparision with the saved version:

test the object ./akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/statisticsproxymodel.cpp.o
test the object ./akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/entitytreeview.cpp.o
test the object ./akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/itemfetchjob.cpp.o
test the object ./akonadi/kmime/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kmime.dir/standardmailactionmanager.cpp.o
all tests are OK

[edit] Check the assembler files

If we add or remove some lines, the debug information included in the object file will change also.

This is the case with the test/change of "Only single empty lines should be used", "First line, last line(s) may not be empty" and some more test/change below (adding some blocks with { and }).

For this reason it is no more possible to compare the objects. We have to compare the assembler files. This works pretty well for the version with CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE set to release. For the version with CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE set to debug, we must remove all the debug information before the comparision can take place.

[edit] Generate the assembler files

To generate the assembler files, we only need to modify the build.make in every folder.

The script Prepare-build_make_files.sh works on the all directory, finds the line with the compiler command, duplicates the line, add a -S option and changes the name of the output to somename.s. After a new make command, we can save all the assembler files with the script Check-the-assembler_code.sh.

[edit] Remove the debug information

The debug information changes with the changes of line numbers. We drop all the debug information before making the test.

The script to check the assembler files can be used in the same way as the one above (Check-the-Objects.sh). To check this, one uses the Check-the-assembler_code.sh.

The script can be used with one of the commands:

  • save
  • test
  • clean

[edit] The results of the migration

The results can be seen here.


This page was last modified on 4 November 2014, at 17:56. This page has been accessed 25,119 times. Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 3.0 as well as the GNU Free Documentation License 1.2.
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