Getting Started/Increased Productivity in KDE4 with Scripts (fi)

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Getting_Started/Increased Productivity in KDE4 with Scripts

Paranna tuottavuuttasi skripteillä
Tutorial Series   Getting Started
Previous   Getting Started/Build/KDE4
What's Next   n/a
Further Reading   Alkuperäisen esittelyn tekijä: David Faure


Aika on kallisarvoista. Tämä kurssi jakaa David Fauren kerätyt viisaudet siitä kuinka saada eniten ajastamme ja ponnistuksistamme säästämällä molempia käyttämällä joitakin yksinkertaisia skriptejä ja tekniikoita KDE 4-kehityksessä.

Ympäristön asetukset

Miksi asentaa käyttäjänä eikä root-oikeuksilla?

  • a single command to compile+link+install (or even a single key in your editor), no su/sudo needed
  • no risk of root-owned files in the builddir, as can happen when some change forces make install to recompile some files
  • safer if something goes wrong (for instance, using the wrong prefix would overwrite the system kde3)
  • make install is faster than "make && sudo make install" since the Makefiles are parsed only once
  • no link errors during sudo make install due to root's environment missing entries in LD_LIBRARY_PATH. Really, setting up the environment once is hard enough, why do it for two users?


If you really want to use a separate account for development, see here.

But to save time and avoid many problems, it is strongly recommended to do it all from your usual user. All you need is an easy way to switch between environments. You go to ~/kde/src/4, you want to be in the kde4 environment, right?

To do this, paste into your .zshrc or .bashrc, and download somewhere in your $PATH (for instance into $HOME/bin or /usr/local/bin).

This way, whenever you enter a directory, it will look up a .my-setup file and source it (it also looks up in parent directories until it finds one, and it doesn't source the same one twice in a row).

Set up all the environment variables that are specific to kde4 (they will be detailed later on in this page) into that ~/kde/src/4/.my-setup file, and do the same for other environments (kde3, and anywhere you need project-specific environment variables...)



For Qt, by habit from the Qt3 times and to save time by avoiding "make install" after a change, I recommend using one directory for source, builds and install. This is done by configuring Qt with --prefix=$PWD. This isn't mandatory though.

Qt-Path: ~/qt/4/qt-copy


It was convenient in kde3, it is mandatory in kde4: you need to use out-of-source builds, i.e. separate build and source directories. It makes it very easy to rebuild from scratch, removing all generated files - even old ones that "make clean" wouldn't remove. It is easier to look at the source files (grep, ls etc.). It allows multiple build trees with different settings, e.g. debug and release.

  1. Source: ~/kde/src/[version]
  2. Build: ~/kde/build/[version]

Thus source modules for kde4 are checked out in ~/kde/src/4/ and building happens in ~/kde/build/4/.

Ympäristömuuttujat ja muut hyödylliset funktiot


If you use bash, take a look at this .bashrc. It is an example bash config which sets all KDE4 environment variables and some helper functions. You can also look at these scripts which are based on the above .bashrc.

The steps below describe some of these features as well as giving alternative and additional functions.

Read further about compiling a KDE module.


To easily swap from build and source folder back and forth, you can use cs and cb functions that work like the following: pwd


cb && pwd

# note that this folder is created if it does not exist

cs && pwd


A number of kde-related scripts will have to be able to do the same. Simply do: export OBJ_REPLACEMENT='s#/kde/src/#/kde/build/#' This allows the makeobj script from kdesdk to switch from src to build. If you also do: alias make=makeobj then you can simply type make from the source dir and it will be able to build. This is also very useful in editors - if your vi or emacs uses makeobj as the make command, you can compile with a single key press.

In addition, for fast navigation to other directories, it is very convenient to be able to type "cs 4/kdelibs" in order to go to ~/src/4/kdelibs, from anywhere. For instance, you could be in ~/kde/src/4/kdebase/workspace/kcontrol and now you decide to look at kdecore... No need to type a long series of "../.." or to restart from the top. You can just type cs 4/kdelibs/kdecore.

This is doable via the two functions cs and cb defined in the .bashrc.

Vaihtoehtoinen tapa

The following code will enable you to use cd similar to cs described above: export CDPATH=.:~/kde/src The advantage, when using zsh, is that completion even works. Try cd 4/kdemul and press Tab, it will complete to 4/kdemultimedia, no matter where you currently are. Doesn't work in bash though - but surely you're using zsh by now, aren't you? :)

The minimal cs and cb aliases (same as above but without support for arguments) are: alias cb='cd `pwd | sed -e s,/kde/src/,/kde/build/,`' alias cs='cd `pwd | sed -e s,/kde/build/,/kde/src/,`'

Siirtyminen takaisin edelliseen hakemistoon

Going back to the previous directory easily can be done with zsh. Set this in .zshrc: setopt AUTO_PUSHD alias p=popd and then you can type "p" to pop back to the directory where you were last, as many times as needed (type "dirs -v" to see the stack of previous directories).


Here you can find more CMake information.

CMake ja alihakemistot

cd 4/kdelibs/kio/kio ; make => mitään ei tapahdu, Makefile on äitihakemistossa.

Huolehdi, että editorisi käyttää sen sijaan käärinskriptiä

  1. !/bin/sh

if test "$1" = "-k"; then shift; fi cmake_in_parent=0 if test -f CMakeLists.txt; then

   if ! grep -q kde4_add CMakeLists.txt; then
       cd ..

fi if test $# -gt 0; then

   if test "$arg" != install -a $cmake_in_parent -eq 1; then
       arg=`basename $PWD`/"$arg"


jvalue=1 echo "calling makeobj -j $jvalue $arg" makeobj -j $jvalue $arg

Hae tämä skripti:

CMake ja riippuvaisuudet

touch kdecore/kapplication.h
cd kdeui ; make

=> kääntää ensin kohteen kdecore

touch kdecore/kapplication.h
cd kdeui ; make kdeui/fast

=> kääntää uudelleen vain kohteen kdeui

make install/fast

Mutta huomaa, että normaalitila (ilman /fast) on myös hyödyllinen muissa tapauksissa: Esimerkiksi muokkaat


ja teet sille yksikkötestin


Silloin, jos haluat kääntää uudelleen sekä libkio että yksikkötestin, anna vain käsky "make kdirmodeltest" hakemistosta kdelibs/kio/tests.

KDE 4-ympäristömuuttujien luettelo

Tämä luettelee kaikki ympäristömuuttujat, jotka sinun pitäisi asettaa esimerkiksi tiedostossa $KDESRC/4/.my-setup




export KDEDIR=/d/kde/inst/kde4 export PATH=$KDEDIR/bin:$PATH export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$KDEDIR/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH export QT_PLUGIN_PATH=$KDEDIR/lib/kde4/plugins export KDEDIRS=$KDEDIR


export KDEHOME=$HOME/.kde4



KDE-moduulin kääntäminen


If you use the aforementioned ~/.bashrc it is very convenient to compile a KDE module (it is required to already have aquired the source code, e.g. via SVN. see Using Subversion with KDE): cs KDE/kdebase cmakekde

Else you'll have to do the following: mkdir -p ~/build/KDE/kdebase && cd ~/build/KDE/kdebase cmake -DKDE4_BUILD_TESTS=TRUE -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=debugfull \ -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=~/kde ~/src/KDE/kdebase make

Älä koskaan poista tiedostoa CMakeCache.txt ja kirjoita sitten komentoa make; suorita aina cmake uudelleen oikeilla valitsimilla CMakeCache.txt-tiedoston poistamisen jälkeen.

Käyttäen kdesvn-build

kdesvn-build is an all-in-one script: it handles the checking-out or updating from subversion, running cmake, make, make install, and storing all output in log files.

Copy kdesvn-buildrc-sample to $KDE_SRC/.kdesvn-buildrc, then edit it. Global options:

  • binpath - don't forget the path to icecream, the PATH env var doesn't count
  • qtdir, svn-server, source-dir, build-dir, kdedir

Per-module options:

module qt-copy
  # kdesvn-build sets the prefix to $qtdir
  configure-flags [....]
  apply-qt-patches true
  make-options -j3 sub-src sub-tools
end module

module kdelibs
  make-options -DKDE4_BUILD_TESTS=TRUE -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=debugfull
end module

KDE4-ohjelmat KDE3:ssa

Xephyr -screen 1240x768 -ac :4 &
export DISPLAY=:4
sh -x startkde 2>&1 | tee kde4.log
/d/kde/inst/kde4/bin/kwin, pid 6756
/d/kde/inst/kde4/bin/kpersonalizer, pid 6757
Killing /d/kde/inst/kde4/bin/kwin, pid 6756
Killing /d/kde/inst/kde4/bin/kpersonalizer, pid 6757

You can get the scripts list-kde4-binaries and kill-kde4-binaries from

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