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|Tutorial Series||Getting Started|
|Further Reading||Alkuperäisen esittelyn tekijä: David Faure|
Time is precious. This tutorial shares David Faure's collected wisdom for how to get the most of our time and effort by saving on both using some simple scripts and techniques while developing KDE 4.
If you really want to use a separate account for development, see here.
But to save time and avoid many problems, it is strongly recommended to do it all from your usual user. All you need is an easy way to switch between environments. You go to ~/kde/src/4, you want to be in the kde4 environment, right?
To do this, paste http://web.davidfaure.fr/scripts/cd_function into your .zshrc or .bashrc, and download http://web.davidfaure.fr/scripts/findup somewhere in your $PATH (for instance into $HOME/bin or /usr/local/bin).
This way, whenever you enter a directory, it will look up a .my-setup file and source it (it also looks up in parent directories until it finds one, and it doesn't source the same one twice in a row).
Set up all the environment variables that are specific to kde4 (they will be detailed later on in this page) into that ~/kde/src/4/.my-setup file, and do the same for other environments (kde3, and anywhere you need project-specific environment variables...)
For Qt, by habit from the Qt3 times and to save time by avoiding "make install" after a change, I recommend using one directory for source, builds and install. This is done by configuring Qt with --prefix=$PWD. This isn't mandatory though.
It was convenient in kde3, it is mandatory in kde4: you need to use out-of-source builds, i.e. separate build and source directories. It makes it very easy to rebuild from scratch, removing all generated files - even old ones that "make clean" wouldn't remove. It is easier to look at the source files (grep, ls etc.). It allows multiple build trees with different settings, e.g. debug and release.
Thus source modules for kde4 are checked out in ~/kde/src/4/ and building happens in ~/kde/build/4/.
If you use bash, take a look at this .bashrc. It is an example bash config which sets all KDE4 environment variables and some helper functions. You can also look at these scripts which are based on the above .bashrc.
The steps below describe some of these features as well as giving alternative and additional functions.
Read further about compiling a KDE module.
To easily swap from build and source folder back and forth, you can use cs and cb functions that work like the following:
cb && pwd
~/kde/build/4/kdebase # note that this folder is created if it does not exist
cs && pwd
A number of kde-related scripts will have to be able to do the same. Simply do: export OBJ_REPLACEMENT='s#/kde/src/#/kde/build/#' This allows the makeobj script from kdesdk to switch from src to build. If you also do: alias make=makeobj then you can simply type make from the source dir and it will be able to build. This is also very useful in editors - if your vi or emacs uses makeobj as the make command, you can compile with a single key press.
In addition, for fast navigation to other directories, it is very convenient to be able to type "cs 4/kdelibs" in order to go to ~/src/4/kdelibs, from anywhere. For instance, you could be in ~/kde/src/4/kdebase/workspace/kcontrol and now you decide to look at kdecore... No need to type a long series of "../.." or to restart from the top. You can just type cs 4/kdelibs/kdecore.
This is doable via the two functions cs and cb defined in the .bashrc.
The following code will enable you to use cd similar to cs described above:
The advantage, when using zsh, is that completion even works. Try cd 4/kdemul and press Tab, it will complete to 4/kdemultimedia, no matter where you currently are. Doesn't work in bash though - but surely you're using zsh by now, aren't you? :)
The minimal cs and cb aliases (same as above but without support for arguments) are: alias cb='cd `pwd | sed -e s,/kde/src/,/kde/build/,`' alias cs='cd `pwd | sed -e s,/kde/build/,/kde/src/,`'
Going back to the previous directory easily can be done with zsh. Set this in .zshrc:
and then you can type "p" to pop back to the directory where you were last,
as many times as needed (type "dirs -v" to see the stack of previous directories).
Here you can find more CMake information.
cd 4/kdelibs/kio/kio ; make => nothing happens, the Makefile is in the parent directory.
Make your editor use a wrapper script instead
if test "$1" = "-k"; then shift; fi cmake_in_parent=0 if test -f CMakeLists.txt; then
if ! grep -q kde4_add CMakeLists.txt; then cmake_in_parent=1 cd .. fi
fi if test $# -gt 0; then
arg="$1" if test "$arg" != install -a $cmake_in_parent -eq 1; then arg=`basename $PWD`/"$arg" fi
jvalue=1 echo "calling makeobj -j $jvalue $arg" makeobj -j $jvalue $arg
Get this script: http://web.davidfaure.fr/scripts/makefromemacs.
touch kdecore/kapplication.h cd kdeui ; make
=> recompiles kdecore first
touch kdecore/kapplication.h cd kdeui ; make kdeui/fast
=> recompiles only kdeui
But note that the normal mode (without /fast) is also useful in other cases: For instance you edit
and the unit test for it
Then, to recompile both libkio and the unit test, simply do "make kdirmodeltest" from kdelibs/kio/tests.
This lists all the environment variables you should set, for instance in $KDESRC/4/.my-setup
If you use the aforementioned ~/.bashrc it is very convenient to compile a KDE module (it is required to already have aquired the source code, e.g. via SVN. see Using Subversion with KDE):
Else you'll have to do the following:
mkdir -p ~/build/KDE/kdebase && cd ~/build/KDE/kdebase
cmake -DKDE4_BUILD_TESTS=TRUE -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=debugfull \
|Never delete CMakeCache.txt and then type make; always re-run cmake with the correct options after deleting CMakeCache.txt.|
kdesvn-build is an all-in-one script: it handles the checking-out or updating from subversion, running cmake, make, make install, and storing all output in log files.
Copy kdesvn-buildrc-sample to $KDE_SRC/.kdesvn-buildrc, then edit it. Global options:
module qt-copy # kdesvn-build sets the prefix to $qtdir configure-flags [....] apply-qt-patches true make-options -j3 sub-src sub-tools end module module kdelibs make-options -DKDE4_BUILD_TESTS=TRUE -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=debugfull end module
Xephyr -screen 1240x768 -ac :4 & export DISPLAY=:4 sh -x startkde 2>&1 | tee kde4.log
>./list-kde4-binaries /d/kde/inst/kde4/bin/kwin, pid 6756 /d/kde/inst/kde4/bin/kpersonalizer, pid 6757
>./kill-kde4-binaries Killing /d/kde/inst/kde4/bin/kwin, pid 6756 Killing /d/kde/inst/kde4/bin/kpersonalizer, pid 6757
You can get the scripts list-kde4-binaries and kill-kde4-binaries from http://web.davidfaure.fr/scripts/