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|Tutorial Series||Getting Started|
|Previous||Anonymous SVN Quickstart Guide|
|What's Next||Set up KDE 4 for development|
|Further Reading||kdesrc-build: The KDE From Source Build Tool|
Increased Productivity in KDE4 with Scripts
Introduction to CMake
Instructions for Mac OS X
Instructions for MS Windows
|Table of contents|
This should not be used in a production environment -- not recommended for daily use.
To build a stable KDE-4 version, go to:
This tutorial shows a labor intensive way to get KDE from trunk running on Linux/BSD systems.
There are also tutorials for FreeBSD, Windows, Mac OS X and Solaris. This tutorial creates a special user, kde-devel, that will run KDE trunk. On the one hand, this allows other users to continue with another KDE version. On the other hand, testing special system-wide code like the KDE display manager is not possible. There is a tutorial to set up KDE 4 trunk on a virtual machine.
Throughout the tutorial the bash shell is used.
Create a user account for KDE4 development
It is important to keep the development version from interfering with the rest of your computer, The method covered here is creating a dedicated kde-devel user.
We will need to:
#Add the user #Set the shell to bash #and may have to use sudoedit if we want to be able to sudo #Create a .bashrc file with environment variables for the build system
A graphical tool is avalable from most distributions, if you have KDE you can get to this tool via: K->Computer->System Settings->User Management
One can do everything under your normal user account
See Increased Productivity in KDE4 with Scripts for more details.The environment variables determinate what version you use. Proceed same as here except put the environment variables in a file. In your .bashrc file add the line source .kde_devel_env. renaming the .kde_devel_env file would make them not be loaded, so you wouldn't use the devel version.
Some systems are configured to use /bin/sh. Many users prefer Bash/bin/bash
sudo useradd -m kde-devel -s /bin/bash
sudo passwd kde-devel
commandline permissions and groups
Edit your /etc/groups file to add the kde-devel user to all the groups that you need (probably the groups that your usual username is already assigned to).
You may need to add user to sudoers file. (beyond scope of this tutorial)
Setting up the environment
Copy the ~/.bashrc from your normal user account to the new kde-devel account.
Next, copy and paste the contents of the example .bashrc into ~kde-devel/.bashrc. Be sure to comment out the line alias make=makeobj if you do not have the makeobj command available. (What is this, how do we know???)
Alternatively, you can download the kde-sdk a.k.a kdesdk package (or perform a subversion checkout) and include the kde-sdk/scripts/ directory in your path. (What is this???)
You will probably also want to modify the path to make sure it doesn't include your kde3 paths.
Also if you want to use KDevelop to develop KDE 4 applications you may pass the -GKDevelop3 flag to the cmake command (to make CMake generate KDevelop project files, it will help to avoid rebuilding in the future, see this).
To make it run, you have to open a new bash or to execute
This will provide access to commands such as cmakekde that are used in this tutorial as well as ensure that the proper paths are in place for Qt, KDE and CMake binaries.
For more information, please read the Getting Started/Increased Productivity in KDE4 with Scripts tutorial.
Using the kde-devel User
To get a text-only command prompt, say from konsole
su - kde-devel
'(need hyphen otherwise your environment will be the same as your regular user)
To Log in Text-only from a virtual terminal:
CTRL-F1 ( CTRL-F7 is normally graphical )
To use a shell that can pop up applications when your normal user is logged in:
ssh -X [email protected]
Required packages from your distribution
The requirements to build kde4 from source vary from distribution to distribution. Instructions for your distribution are provided below: See build requirements for more complete list.
Ark Linux, Arch Linux, Chakra, Fedora, Kubuntu and Debian (or check out Project Neon), openSUSE (specific guide for openSUSE. However be careful because it updates a huge number of your stable packages.), Gentoo, Linux from Scratch or to build from source. Mandriva any other distro
Optional Documentation Dependencies
For trunk you also now need docbook-dtd42-xml for the docs. Depending on your distribution please get the docbook related packages and the 4.2 DTD.
Your next compilation step depends on the packages supplied by your distro.
Compiling kde-qt, etc.
If you do not want to use the packages provided by your distro you can compile things like Qt yourself. Instructions for building all dependencies including CMake, Qt4 (kde-qt) and kdesupport are available in the build prerequisites page. Note that automoc, strigi, soprano, and a few other things are part of kdesupport, so if you have errors about these missing, you'll need to get kdesupport.
Useful subversion tweaks
If you check out large parts of svn trunk regularly or if you want to create patches which touch several modules at once, you should try to checkout an empty tree of trunk first and then update only the relevant modules, for example:
cd cs # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more svn checkout --depth empty svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk cd trunk svn up kdesupport && cd kdesupport cmakekde cs trunk svn up --depth empty KDE svn up KDE/kdelibs && cd KDE/kdelibs cmakekde cs trunk svn up KDE/kdepimlibs ...
Why do I want to do that?
That way you can move stuff around all over the trunk repository, e.g. from playground to kdereview or to KDE/*. The following examples assume that you only want to test or work on single and few modules of trunk.
This way updating the whole repository to a (hopefully) consitent state, the same revision, is really easy:
cs trunk # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more svn up
Download and Compile
In this section we go over acquiring and building the product.
Please note, that requirements and dependancies frequently change. You are running an UNSTABLE version, and simply compiling is not guaranteed. You will need to review errors and locate packages, (see acquire dependencies above) and Troubleshooting information.
We can now move on to building KDE's most essential libraries.
Very important for lots of things, you may need to see troubleshooting and install some things from kdesupport first.
cd cs # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more mkdir KDE && cd KDE svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdelibs cd kdelibs mkdir build cd build cmakekde ..
We change to the base source directory (line 1) then make and go into the KDE directory (line 3). We download the sources for kdelibs using subversion (line 4), go into the new ~/kde/src/KDE/kdelibs directory (line 5), and commence the build (line 6). This will leave us in the kdelibs build directory after the build is completed.
Additional KDE-specific CMake know-how
There are additional CMake modules in kdelibs/cmake/modules/ that are necessary for building KDE4 applications. These will be installed for you when kdelibs itself is installed.
To make a non-debug-release (e.g. suppressing all kDebug() messages), use e.g.
cmake -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release . && make && make install
For troubleshooting information, see the kdelibs troubleshooting section.
Currently kdebase depends on kdepimlibs so it is required to install it first. These libraries are also shared by other packages such as those within kdepim, kdeutils and kdenetwork.
Download libical from http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=16077, compile, link and install it.
tar xvzf libical-0.41.tar.gz cd libical-0.41 ./configure && make && make install
cs KDE # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdepimlibs cd kdepimlibs cmakekde
We go into the KDE source directory (line 1), download the source code for kdepimlibs using subversion (line 2) and then go into the new ~/kde/src/KDE/kdepimlibs directory (line 3). We then commence the build (line 4). This will leave us in the kdepimlibs build directory after the build is completed.
For troubleshooting information, see the kdepimlibs troubleshooting section.
kdebase is divided into three parts:
- This contains applications like Dolphin or KWrite.
- This contains things needed by every application at runtime, like icons. It is a required dependency for each KDE application, so you have to compile and install this.
- This contains things specific to the KDE desktop, like Plasma or the window manager. Most stuff here depends on X11. You only need it if you want to build a full KDE desktop.
You can build all of kdebase at once, which is described in the recipe below. If you only want to build kdebase-runtime, which is the only requirement, you can replace
cd kdebase with
cd kdebase/runtime in the recipe below.
cs KDE # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdebase cd kdebase cmakekde
For troubleshooting information, see the kdebase troubleshooting section.
Most KDE users are going to install translations before being able to use their desktop properly. Full information is given in the Localisation tutorial. For a single language, the following receipe installs messages and translated documentation:
cs KDE # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more svn checkout -N svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/l10n-kde4 cd l10n-kde4 svn up scripts <language> ./scripts/autogen.sh <language> cd <language> cmakekde
Running KDE 4 programs
You can now run KDE 4 programs (e.g. kwrite) by typing:
ssh -X [email protected] kwrite
For troubleshooting issues see troubleshooting running programs.
Generating local API documentation
See the generating apidox page.
Staying up to date
In order to keep the kde4 installation up to date, each of the modules installed should be updated periodically. As Monday is the day for big changes in kdelibs, Tuesday may be the best day to do this. For each module checked out, run svn up and make.
cs kdesupport # cs is not a typo
cb # cb is not a typo
make && make install
Note: it is not necessary to run cmakekde for updates.
Installing a subset of a module
Many modules in KDE contain a large number of programs which could take a long time to download and compile. In cases where you want to work only on a particular program or programs in a module, it is possible to download and compile particular folders. In some cases, certain folders are required for any build of the module. This is determined in the CMakeLists.txt file of the module. For example the kdegames CMakeLists.txt file lists:
So, the libkdegames and libkmahjongg directories are required to build any of kdegames. The cmake directory will also usually be required. All the other directories (doc, katomic etc) are optional. They will be built if present on your machine. In this example, we build kmahjongg and kbattleship:
svn co -N svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdegames # The -N switch performs a non-recursive checkout
svn co svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdegames/libkdegames # Get required directories
svn co svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdegames/libkmahjongg
svn co svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdegames/cmake
svn co svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdegames/kbattleship # Get optional directories
svn co svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdegames/kmahjongg
You are now ready to start building other svn modules in the same fashion as you built kdebase, running and testing KDE4 or writing your own patches and applications.
For further isolation of your development environment change symbolic links, which you will see after executing ls -lh $(kde4-config --localprefix), assuming newly installed kde4-config is called.
See the Set up KDE 4 for development tutorial for how to start KDE 4 applications and how to use KDevelop to work on them.
For most of what you need to know on patches see: Sending Patches