|Tutorial Series||Getting Started|
|Previous||Anonymous SVN Quickstart Guide|
|What's Next||Set up KDE 4 for development|
|Further Reading||kdesvn-build: The KDE From Subversion Build Tool|
Increased Productivity in KDE4 with Scripts
Introduction to CMake
Instructions for Mac OS X
Instructions for MS Windows
The following must be installed first before you can successfully complete this tutorial:
- gcc and g++, preferably version 4.2 or higher
- svn, the subversion revision control client
- the shared-mime-info package, which is the freedesktop MIME standard KDE is using now
In Ark Linux, the build dependencies you need are installed with:
apt-get install devel-core libxml-devel libxslt-devel bzip2-devel \
clucene-core-devel librdf-devel shared-mime-info xorg-Mesa-libGL-devel \
subversion boost-devel doxygen giflib-devel dbus-devel openssl-devel \
alsa-lib-devel kdesdk-scripts qt4-devel
If you prefer a graphical interface, select the packages listed above in the "Install Software" tool in Mission Control.
This includes installation of CMake, DBus and Qt - you can skip steps 5, 6 and 7.
Some of the required packages for building KDE4 on Fedora 7 or higher:
yum install clucene-core-devel libxml libxml-devel libxslt-devel \
dbus-devel boost-devel bzip2-devel openssl-devel alsa-lib-devel \
redland-devel rasqal-devel raptor-devel hspell-devel aspell-devel \
Kubuntu and Debian
In Kubuntu 7.04 (Feisty) and Debian (Testing/Unstable) the build dependencies you need are installed with:
sudo aptitude install build-essential cdbs debhelper cmake \
libxml2-dev libxslt1-dev libbz2-dev libclucene-dev librdf-dev \
shared-mime-info libgl1-mesa-dev libglu1-mesa-dev mesa-common-dev \
libxext-dev libjpeg-dev libpng-dev subversion libsm-dev libxinerama-dev \
libxrender-dev libfontconfig-dev libboost-dev libxcursor-dev doxygen \
libungif4-dev libdbus-1-dev libgpgme11-dev libssl-dev libgpgme11-dev \
libasound2-dev kdesdk-scripts libpth-dev libjasper-dev \
ssh libxine-dev libqimageblitz-dev libqimageblitz4 libglib2.0-dev
In Kubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy) you have to add:
sudo aptitude install dbus-x11
For a fully functional API documentation framework you also need:
sudo aptitude install graphviz
sudo zypper install <package-name>
In older releases of SUSE, you can use YaST:
yast -i <packagename>
The packages you will need to install are:
gmp-devel (needed to build kdesupport)
strigi-devel (needed to build kdelibs)
gpgme-devel (needed to build kdepimlibs)
You can skip the manual installation of Qt 4.3, CMake 2.4.6 and DBus by installing the adding the openSUSE Build Service KDE4 Repository to your installation sources.
sudo zypper service-add http://software.opensuse.org/download/KDE:/KDE4/openSUSE_10.2 KDE4-102
installation_sources -a http://software.opensuse.org/download/KDE:/KDE4/[YOUR SUSE LINUX VERSION]
Now install the following packages:
libqca2-devel (needed for building kdesupport)
And for fully functional apidox framework you also need:
CMake binary packages for openSUSE are available from openSUSE build service.
Install by hand
You can use stable ebuilds just remember to sync your portage before you begin.
Remember: All commands are executed as root.
We need to allow the following keyword masked ebuilds.
echo 'dev-util/cmake' >> /etc/portage/package.keywords
echo 'dev-cpp/clucene' >> /etc/portage/package.keywords
And now need to mask any Clucene versions above 0.9.16a.
echo '>dev-cpp/clucene-0.9.16a' >> /etc/portage/package.mask
Make sure you have set the berkdb USE flag for redland, otherwise nepomuk won't work.
echo 'dev-libs/redland berkdb' >> /etc/portage/package.use
These are the packages you will need to emerge, I included the update option into the emerge command so you will not re-emerge anything that you might already have installed.
emerge -avu 'sys-devel/gcc' \
'dev-util/subversion' \ 'dev-util/pkgconfig' \ 'x11-base/xorg-x11' \ 'virtual/glut' \ 'media-libs/mesa' \ 'media-libs/jpeg' \ 'media-libs/libpng' \ 'media-libs/giflib' \ 'dev-cpp/clucene' \ 'dev-util/cppunit' \ 'media-libs/liblrdf' \ 'dev-libs/libxml2' \ 'dev-libs/libxslt' \ 'x11-misc/shared-mime-info' \ 'dev-libs/boost' \ 'dev-util/cmake' \ 'dev-libs/redland' \ 'sys-apps/dbus' \ 'sys-apps/hal' \ 'x11-libs/qt'
You will also need to emerge either 'kde-base/kdesdk' or kde-base/kdesdk-scripts'.
If you emerged DBUS, CMAKE, QT or HAL you may skip those sections respectively. Good luck!
Install via portage
Also you can install the KDE 4 packages directly via
emerge -a <packagename>
To get the things you need, install layman and then pull in the KDE overlay (which contains experimental KDE ebuilds):
layman -a kde
After this you need to adjust some USE-flags for KDE 4 and tell portage to use the testing KDE 4 ebuilds instead of the stable KDE 3 ones.
That way portage will do the dependency tracking for you.
Create a user account for KDE4 development
Option 1: Command Line
useradd -m kde-devel
Option 2: Using KControl
Setting up the environment
Copy the ~/.bashrc from your normal user account to the new kde-devel account. Next, copy and paste the contents of the example .bashrc into ~kde-devel/.bashrc. Be sure to comment out the line alias make=makeobj if you do not have the makeobj command available. You will probably also want to modify the path to make sure it doesn't include your kde3 paths. Also if you want to use KDevelop to develop KDE 4 applications you may pass the -GKDevelop3 flag to the cmake command (to make CMake generate KDevelop project files, it will help to avoid rebuilding in the future, see this).
To make it run, you have to open a new bash or to execute
Switching to the New User
Switch to the user kde-devel: (don't forget the dash)
ssh -X [email protected]
The development user's shell
On some systems a new user is configured by default to use /bin/sh. If this is not the case on your system, you can skip this section. Using /bin/sh can be very inconvenient to work with and you may want to change it to /bin/bash or another shell. On Ark Linux, you can skip this step - /bin/sh is bash on Ark Linux.
Option 1: As the kde-devel user
chsh -s /bin/bash kde-devel
Option 2: As the root user
The new shell will be started automatically when you log in as the kde-devel user again.
You may skip this section if you have a recent D-Bus version or if you don't want to upgrade. You probably want to skip building the bindings until/unless you know you will be building HAL (see below).
Building X11 code: yes
cs # see above wget http://dbus.freedesktop.org/releases/dbus-glib/dbus-glib-0.74.tar.gz tar -xvzf dbus-glib-0.74.tar.gz cd dbus-glib-0.74/ ./configure --prefix=$DBUSDIR make sudo make install
The steps for building the glib bindings are similar to the above.
If your system does not have the sudo command, you can instead do su -c "make install".
Next we need to get the Qt4 that is in KDE's source repository. KDE is guaranteed to build against any Qt 4.3. Qt 4.2 and earlier are not supported and will not work. You should use the copy in the KDE Subversion servers. (note: some distros, like Debian, tend to supply Qt with patches from KDE svn applied, so you may want to cheat and use precompiled Qt from your distro)
cd # Note: qt-copy lives in $HOME/qt-copy. See $QTDIR in .bashrc svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/qt-copy cd qt-copy ./apply_patches ./configure -qt-gif -no-exceptions -debug -fast \ -prefix $QTDIR -nomake examples -nomake demos make -j2
# if we don't install, we'll just clear obj files to # save disk space if [ $QTDIR = `pwd` ]; then \ find . -name '*.o' -delete ; \ else make install; fi;
Once the patches have been applied, we then set up the build using the configure script (line 5-6). The various command line options used are explained in the qt-copy/README.qt-copy file. Finally, we build the minimal requirements for KDE (line 7) and install (line 10) Qt. If install dir is the same as the current dir (line 8), then we just free some space (line 9) instead. If you want all the example and demo applications, you can either build them individually or simply do a make from the qt-copy directory.
If your system requires you to build a newer version of HAL, there's a decent chance you'll need to build other stuff as well, some of which may not be straight forward. Since this should only be required for older distros, instructions are on a separate page.
There are several libraries that KDE applications rely on in the kdesupport module. This includes Strigi and Soprano for file metadata and search, QImageBlitz for image manipulation needed in kdebase, eigen for visual effects in applications such as Kalzium, taglib for music players and qca for some cryptographic needs.
Strigi itself has a few dependencies as well: you will need the libraries and headers for libz, libbz2, openssl (libcrypto or libssl), libclucene (>=0.9.16a but watch out: version 0.9.17 does not work), and either libxml2 or libexpat.
cs # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/kdesupport/ cd kdesupport cmakekde
We change to the base source directory (line 1). We download the sources in kdesupport using subversion (line 2), go into the new ~/kde/src/kdesupport directory (line 3), and commence the build (line 4). This will leave us in the kdesupport build directory after the build is completed.
If you get
cmakekde: command not found
then you have to go manualy into the kdesupport directory in ~ and execute the command cmakekde. if this still doesnt work, then something is wrong with your bashrc.
If you get
you should install the development package for libxml2.
If you get
CMake Error: Could NOT find REDLAND
If you get
Fetching external item into 'kdesupport/admin' Error validating server certificate for 'https://...'
If you get
take a second look in the .bashrc file described above, are paths correct? Alternatively, you may see this error if you decided to use a distribution installed version of qt4 and skipped the Qt install above. Either install qt-copy as describe above, or "sudo make install". If you use "sudo make install", make sure you that you change the ownership back to your user for some of the ~/kde subdirectories that were effected by using sudo (ie. "sudo chown -R kde-devel:kde-devel ~/kde").
We can now move on to building KDE's base libraries.
cd cs # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more mkdir KDE && cd KDE svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdelibs cd kdelibs cmakekde
We change to the base source directory (line 1) then make and go into the KDE directory (line 2). We download the sources for kdelibs using subversion (line 3), go into the new ~/kde/src/KDE/kdelibs directory (line 4), and commence the build (line 5). This will leave us in the kdelibs build directory after the build is completed.
Additional KDE-specific CMake modules
- If the cmakekde command fails stating that CMake requires an out of source build directory, remove ~/kde/src/KDE/kdelibs/CMakeCache.txt, and try again.
If cmakekde still gives the same error then try this
cd cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=$KDEDIR \ -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=debugfull \ -DKDE4_BUILD_TESTS=ON \ ~/kde/src/KDE/kdelibs make make install
- If qmake wasn't found and you are using Debian packages, /usr/bin/qmake probably points to a wrong qmake version. To fix this run as root:
update-alternatives --config qmake
- If the problems persist, try the CMake make-option --keep-going.
- if you get
CMake Error: KDE Requires Qt to be built with SSL support
, install openssl-devel, remove CMakeCache.txt and re-compile QT.
- if you get
kdelibs/kimgio/ico.cpp:188: undefined reference to `QImage::jumpTable()'it means you compiled QT without QT3 support(no, linking to a true QT3 install won't work)
After kdelibs, but before kdebase, you need to build and install kdepimlibs.
cs KDE # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdepimlibs cd kdepimlibs cmakekde
We go into the KDE source directory (line 1), download the source code for kdepimlibs using subversion (line 2) and then go into the new ~/kde/src/KDE/kdepimlibs directory (line 3). We then commence the build (line 4). This will leave us in the kdepimlibs build directory after the build is completed.
If you have trouble compiling kdepimlibs:
kdebase is divided into three parts:
- This contains applications like Dolphin or KWrite.
- This contains things needed by every application at runtime, like icons. It is a required dependency for each KDE application, so you have to compile and install this.
- This contains things specific to the KDE desktop, like Plasma or the window manager. Most stuff here depends on X11. You only need it if you want to build a full KDE desktop.
You can build all of kdebase at once, which is described in the recipe below. If you only want to build kdebase-runtime, which is the only requirement, you can replace
cd kdebase with
cd kdebase/runtime in the recipe below.
cs KDE # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdebase cd kdebase cmakekde
If you have troubles compiling kdebase:
- which meinproc has to deliver /home/kde-devel/kde/bin/meinproc
- the same for "X11_Xinerama_LIB (ADVANCED)" where you will need the devel package for xinerama.
- if you get the error "CMake Error: This project requires some variables to be set, and cmake can not find them. Please set the following variables: QT_QTOPENGL_LIBRARY (ADVANCED) ", try editing CMakeCache.txt and setting QT_QTOPENGL_LIBRARY:FILEPATH=/home/kde-devel/qt-copy/lib/libQtOpenGL.so
- if you get messages as "KDE4_INSTALL_HANDBOOK() is deprecated. Remove it please. Now all is done in KDE4_CREATE_HANDBOOK." then, either find the files containing the offending line and comment it out manually, or run the following script in ~/kde/src/KDE/kdebase: macros_corrector.sh. It will just REMOVE the line that has "kde4_create_handbook" in it from all the found files.
Running KDE 4 programs
You can now run KDE 4 programs (e.g. kwrite) by typing:
ssh -X [email protected] kwrite
- If you get
KUniqueApplication: Cannot find the D-Bus session server
check if you can access the display, e.g. type
and see if a clock appears on the screen.
- If you get something like
Error: standard icon theme "oxygen" not found! ASSERT: "!isEmpty()" in file /home/kde-devel/qt-copy/include/QtCore/../../src/corelib/tools/qlist.h, line 245 Aborted (core dumped)
You need to install kdebase - see above. It is enough to install the "runtime" directory from kdebase.
Generating local API documentation
To build the API documentation for kdelibs, type the following:
cs KDE/kdelibs # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more $KDE_SRC/KDE/kdelibs/doc/api/doxygen.sh \ --doxdatadir=$KDE_SRC/KDE/kdelibs/doc/common .
Repeat for other modules as desired.
Another, even easier method involves downloading this Doxyfile to your local system. Then simply change directory to where you want to create the documentation and run
% doxygen /path/to/Doxyfile
Then review the file doxygen.log to see the doxygen errors and warnings. You'll find the actual documentation in the apidocs subdirectory.
Staying up to date
cs kdesupport # cs is not a typo
cb # cb is not a typo
make -j2 VERBOSE=1 && make install
Installing a subset of a module
Many modules in KDE contain a large number of programs which could take a long time to download and compile. In cases where you want to work only on a particular program or programs in a module, it is possible to download and compile particular folders. In some cases, certain folders are required for any build of the module. This is determined in the CMakeLists.txt file of the module. For example the kdegames CMakeLists.txt file lists:
So, the libkdegames and libkmahjongg directories are required to build any of kdegames. The cmake directory will also usually be required. All the other directories (doc, katomic etc) are optional. They will be built if present on your machine. In this example, we build kmahjongg and kbattleship:
svn co -N kdegames # The -N switch performs a non-recursive checkout
svn up libkdegames # Get required directories
svn up libkmahjongg
svn up cmake
svn up kbattleship # Get optional directories
svn up kmahjongg
find $KDE_SRC/KDE/kdebase -name "*.kcfg" | xargs touch
The same applies to ui files as produced by Qt designer.