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|Tutorial Series||Getting Started|
|Previous||Anonymous SVN Quickstart Guide|
|What's Next||Set up KDE 4 for development|
|Further Reading||kdesvn-build: The KDE From Subversion Build Tool|
Increased Productivity in KDE4 with Scripts
Introduction to CMake
Instructions for Mac OS X
Instructions for MS Windows
|Expect a higher risk of build failure on Mondays when most kdelibs changes are committed. Dashboard reports unexpected breakages. You are encouraged to fix failing modules.|
The following must be installed first before you can successfully complete this tutorial:
In Ark Linux, the build dependencies you need are installed with:
apt-get install devel-core libxml-devel libxslt-devel bzip2-devel \
clucene-core-devel librdf-devel shared-mime-info xorg-Mesa-libGL-devel \
subversion boost-devel doxygen giflib-devel dbus-devel openssl-devel \
alsa-lib-devel kdesdk-scripts qt4-devel
If you prefer a graphical interface, select the packages listed above in the "Install Software" tool in Mission Control.
This includes installation of CMake, DBus and Qt - you can skip steps 5, 6 and 7.
Some of the required packages for building KDE4 on Fedora 7 or higher:
yum install clucene-core-devel libxml libxml-devel libxslt-devel \
dbus-devel boost-devel bzip2-devel openssl-devel alsa-lib-devel \
redland-devel rasqal-devel raptor-devel hspell-devel aspell-devel \
In Kubuntu 7.04 (Feisty) and Debian (Testing/Unstable) the build dependencies you need are installed with:
sudo aptitude install build-essential cdbs debhelper cmake \
libxml2-dev libxslt1-dev libbz2-dev libclucene-dev librdf-dev \
shared-mime-info libgl1-mesa-dev libglu1-mesa-dev mesa-common-dev \
libxext-dev libjpeg-dev libpng-dev subversion libsm-dev libxinerama-dev \
libxrender-dev libfontconfig-dev libboost-dev libxcursor-dev doxygen \
libungif4-dev libdbus-1-dev libgpgme11-dev libssl-dev libgpgme11-dev \
libasound2-dev kdesdk-scripts libpth-dev libjasper-dev \
ssh libxine-dev libqimageblitz-dev libqimageblitz4
In Kubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy) you have to add:
sudo aptitude install dbus-x11
For a fully functional API documentation framework you also need:
sudo aptitude install graphviz
In openSUSE 10.2 and newer, you can install packages using Zypper:
sudo zypper install <package-name>
In older releases of SUSE, you can use YaST:
yast -i <packagename>
The packages you will need to install are:
gmp-devel (needed to build kdesupport)
strigi-devel (needed to build kdelibs)
gpgme-devel (needed to build kdepimlibs)
You can skip the manual installation of Qt 4.3, CMake 2.4.6 and DBus by installing the adding the openSUSE Build Service KDE4 Repository to your installation sources.
For openSUSE 10.2 and newer do:
sudo zypper service-add http://software.opensuse.org/download/KDE:/KDE4/openSUSE_10.2 KDE4-102
For older versions of SUSE Linux do:
installation_sources -a http://software.opensuse.org/download/KDE:/KDE4/[YOUR SUSE LINUX VERSION]
Now install the following packages (and their dependencies):
libqca2-devel (needed for building kdesupport)
And for fully functional apidox framework you also need:
CMake binary packages for openSUSE are available from openSUSE build service.
You can use stable ebuilds just remember to sync your portage before you begin.
Remember: All commands are executed as root.
We need to allow the following keyword masked ebuilds.
echo 'dev-util/cmake' >> /etc/portage/package.keywords
echo 'dev-cpp/clucene' >> /etc/portage/package.keywords
And now need to mask any Clucene versions above 0.9.16a.
echo '>dev-cpp/clucene-0.9.16a' >> /etc/portage/package.mask
Make sure you have set the berkdb USE flag for redland, otherwise nepomuk won't work.
echo 'dev-libs/redland berkdb' >> /etc/portage/package.use
These are the packages you will need to emerge, I included the update option into the emerge command so you will not re-emerge anything that you might already have installed.
emerge -avu 'sys-devel/gcc' \
'dev-util/subversion' \ 'dev-util/pkgconfig' \ 'x11-base/xorg-x11' \ 'virtual/glut' \ 'media-libs/mesa' \ 'media-libs/jpeg' \ 'media-libs/libpng' \ 'media-libs/giflib' \ 'dev-cpp/clucene' \ 'dev-util/cppunit' \ 'media-libs/liblrdf' \ 'dev-libs/libxml2' \ 'dev-libs/libxslt' \ 'x11-misc/shared-mime-info' \ 'dev-libs/boost' \ 'dev-util/cmake' \ 'dev-libs/redland' \ 'sys-apps/dbus' \ 'sys-apps/hal' \ 'x11-libs/qt'
You will also need to emerge either 'kde-base/kdesdk' or kde-base/kdesdk-scripts'.
If you emerged DBUS, CMAKE, QT or HAL you may skip those sections respectively. Good luck!
Also you can install the KDE 4 packages directly via
emerge -a <packagename>
To get the things you need, install layman and then pull in the KDE overlay (which contains experimental KDE ebuilds):
layman -a kde
After this you need to adjust some USE-flags for KDE 4 and tell portage to use the testing KDE 4 ebuilds instead of the stable KDE 3 ones.
That way portage will do the dependency tracking for you.
|Some people like to have a separate user account for KDE 4 (for instance an old bug deleted files by mistake), and the instructions below were written with that approach.
However it is much more efficient to do everything with a single user account, see Increased Productivity in KDE4 with Scripts for more details.You can still follow the instructions below, but don't put the environment variables in your .bashrc, put them in a separate file that you source to switch to the KDE 4 environment.
useradd -m kde-devel
Instead of using the commands above, you can also use the User module in the KDE Control Center if you already have KDE3 installed.
Copy the ~/.bashrc from your normal user account to the new kde-devel account. Next, copy and paste the contents of the example .bashrc into ~kde-devel/.bashrc. Be sure to comment out the line alias make=makeobj if you do not have the makeobj command available. You will probably also want to modify the path to make sure it doesn't include your kde3 paths. Also if you want to use KDevelop to develop KDE 4 applications you may pass the -GKDevelop3 flag to the cmake command (to make CMake generate KDevelop project files, it will help to avoid rebuilding in the future, see this).
To make it run, you have to open a new bash or to execute
This will provide access to commands such as cmakekde that are used in this tutorial as well as ensure that the proper paths are in place for Qt, KDE and CMake binaries.
For more information, please read the Getting Started/Increased Productivity in KDE4 with Scripts tutorial.
Switch to the user kde-devel: (don't forget the dash)
ssh -X kde-devel@localhost
|If the ssh command fails, check out the "Launching KDE 4 apps" section of this KDE4 development guide: http://techbase.kde.org/Getting_Started/Set_up_KDE_4_for_development#Launching_KDE_4_apps|
On some systems a new user is configured by default to use /bin/sh. If this is not the case on your system, you can skip this section. Using /bin/sh can be very inconvenient to work with and you may want to change it to /bin/bash or another shell. On Ark Linux, you can skip this step - /bin/sh is bash on Ark Linux.
If you don't have root privileges and your system supports the changing of your own shell with the chsh application, then you could try to change your shell to /bin/bash by using:
chsh -s /bin/bash kde-devel
If your system comes with the usermod application you can run the following command as root: usermod -s /bin/bash.
Another option is to use the vipw application as root to safely edit your /etc/passwd. Locate 'kde-devel' in the the file. Change '/bin/sh' at the end of the line to read '/bin/bash', save your changes and exit.
The new shell will be started automatically when you log in as the kde-devel user again.
QtDBus and KDE are known to work with D-Bus versions 0.62, as well as 0.92 and upwards. Versions 0.60 and 0.61 may work too but are not tested. Versions 0.90 and 0.91 are known not to work. We recommend using post-1.0 release versions (at least 0.94), so consider upgrading if you haven't done so.
You may skip this section if you have a recent D-Bus version or if you don't want to upgrade. You probably want to skip building the bindings until/unless you know you will be building HAL (see below).
Before running these steps in the recipe, make sure your X11 headers and libraries are available. The configure script run on line 5 of the following instructions should output:
Building X11 code: yes
|Make sure you did set up your environment correctly as described above. This is necessary for the cs and cb functions to work.|
cs # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more wget http://dbus.freedesktop.org/releases/dbus/dbus-1.0.2.tar.gz tar -xvzf dbus-1.0.2.tar.gz cd dbus-1.0.2/ ./configure --prefix=$DBUSDIR --localstatedir=/var make sudo make install sudo dbus-uuidgen --ensure
cs # see above wget http://dbus.freedesktop.org/releases/dbus-glib/dbus-glib-0.74.tar.gz tar -xvzf dbus-glib-0.74.tar.gz cd dbus-glib-0.74/ ./configure --prefix=$DBUSDIR make sudo make install
After changing into the source directory (line 1), D-Bus source code is downloaded from freedesktop.org (line 2) and unpacked (line 3). After going into the newly created D-Bus directory (line 4), the build is set up using the supplied configure script (line 5). After building (line 6) and installing (line 7) D-Bus, we use the dbus-uuidgen tool to install a machine identification file that allows the bus to start automatically when the desktop session starts (line 8).
Note that you need write access to /var for the last two steps. If your system does not have the sudo command, you can use the su command instead, e.g. su -c "make install".
The steps for building the glib bindings are similar to the above.
cs # 'cs' is a bash function, click Here to learn more wget http://www.cmake.org/files/v2.4/cmake-2.4.6.tar.gz tar -zxf cmake-2.4.6.tar.gz mkdir cmake-build cd cmake-build ../cmake-2.4.6/bootstrap make sudo make install
First, we go back to the kde-devel user's source directory (line 1), get the CMake sources (line 2) and unpack them (line 3). We create a directory to build CMake in (line 4) and go into it (line 5). We then run the CMake bootstrap script to set up the CMake build (line 6), then make (line 7) and install it (line 8) using the root user.
If your system does not have the sudo command, you can instead do su -c "make install".
Next we need to get the Qt4 that is in KDE's source repository. KDE is guaranteed to build against any Qt 4.3. Qt 4.2 and earlier are not supported and will not work. You should use the copy in the KDE Subversion servers. (note: some distros, like Debian, tend to supply Qt with patches from KDE svn applied, so you may want to cheat and use precompiled Qt from your distro)
cs # cs is not a typo svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/qt-copy cd qt-copy ./apply_patches ./configure -qt-gif -no-exceptions -debug -fast \ -prefix $QTDIR -nomake examples -nomake demos make -j2
# if we don't install, we'll just clear obj files to # save disk space if [ $QTDIR = `pwd` ]; then \ find . -name '*.o' -delete ; \ else make install; fi;
We switch back to the kde-devel user's home directory (line 1) and download the source code using subversion (svn) from KDE's repository (line 2). After changing into the resulting qt-copy directory (line 3), we run a script that manages the patches that come with qt-copy (line 4).
Once the patches have been applied, we then set up the build using the configure script (line 5-6). The various command line options used are explained in the qt-copy/README.qt-copy file. Finally, we build the minimal requirements for KDE (line 7) and install (line 10) Qt. If install dir is the same as the current dir (line 8), then we just free some space (line 9) instead. If you want all the example and demo applications, you can either build them individually or simply do a make from the qt-copy directory.
Note that the installation does not require root as it installs Qt locally into $QTDIR. Anyway, installation is only needed if $QTDIR differs from $HOME/qt-copy, which is not the case if you have exactly followed the instructions.
If you get "error: X11/Xlib.h: No such file or directory", install the devel package of xorg (the actual name may vary between operating systems, for example it is xorg-dev on Ubuntu based systems such as Kubuntu).
If you get an error in the configure step about missing defines, check the value of $QMAKESPEC. Some distributions set this to point directly to the system-installed Qt. If unset QMAKESPEC solves the problem, you probably want to add it to the ~/.bashrc script.
If you get an error ".pch/debug-shared/QtCore", this is because Qt-4.3 enables precompiled headers if your gcc supports it, but for some reason it doesn't work for you. If you use distcc, configure qt with -no-pch. If you use icecream, update to the latest icecream from svn trunk.
Try running any Qt program, like assistant. Note: You may need to run xhost +local:kde-devel as your regular kde3 user to run this application. If it crashes in QSpanData::adjustSpanMethods, then your problem is the oxygen style. Try removing lib/kde4/plugins/styles/kstyle-oxygen.so and lib/kde4/plugins/styles/oxygen.so if they exist in the KDE install prefix.
|You can use qdbusviewer to see if you have org.freedesktop.hal. If not, you might need a newer version of hal. If you have org.freedesktop.hal, you probably don't need to, and don't want to, roll your own HAL.|
If your system requires you to build a newer version of HAL, there's a decent chance you'll need to build other stuff as well, some of which may not be straight forward. Since this should only be required for older distros, instructions are on a separate page.
|Don't forget to read the Setting Up The Environment section first.|
There are several libraries that KDE applications rely on in the kdesupport module. This includes Strigi and Soprano for file metadata and search, QImageBlitz for image manipulation needed in kdebase, eigen for visual effects in applications such as Kalzium, taglib for music players and qca for some cryptographic needs.
Strigi itself has a few dependencies as well: you will need the libraries and headers for libz, libbz2, openssl (libcrypto or libssl), libclucene (>=0.9.16a but watch out: version 0.9.17 does not work), and either libxml2 or libexpat.
cs # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/kdesupport/ cd kdesupport cmakekde
We change to the base source directory (line 1). We download the sources in kdesupport using subversion (line 2), go into the new ~/kde/src/kdesupport directory (line 3), and commence the build (line 4). This will leave us in the kdesupport build directory after the build is completed.
If you get
cmakekde: command not found
then you have to go manualy into the kdesupport directory in ~ and execute the command cmakekde. if this still doesnt work, then something is wrong with your bashrc.
If you get
CMake Error: This project requires some variables to be set, and cmake can not find them. Please set the following variables: LIBXML2_INCLUDE_DIR (ADVANCED)
you should install the development package for libxml2.
If you get
CMake Error: Could NOT find REDLAND
then you need librdf from the Redland. If your distribution does not provide the librdf package, you can download the source there: http://download.librdf.org/source/ and build it. (Gentoo users: The ebuild for librdf is named dev-libs/redland)
If you get
Fetching external item into 'kdesupport/admin' Error validating server certificate for 'https://...'
If you get
FILE cannot create directory: /usr/lib/qt4/plugins/crypto. Maybe need administrative privileges. - - - make: *** [install] Error 255
take a second look in the .bashrc file described above, are paths correct? Alternatively, you may see this error if you decided to use a distribution installed version of qt4 and skipped the Qt install above. Either install qt-copy as describe above, or "sudo make install". If you use "sudo make install", make sure you that you change the ownership back to your user for some of the ~/kde subdirectories that were effected by using sudo (ie. "sudo chown -R kde-devel:kde-devel ~/kde").
We can now move on to building KDE's base libraries.
cd cs # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more mkdir KDE && cd KDE svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdelibs cd kdelibs cmakekde
We change to the base source directory (line 1) then make and go into the KDE directory (line 2). We download the sources for kdelibs using subversion (line 3), go into the new ~/kde/src/KDE/kdelibs directory (line 4), and commence the build (line 5). This will leave us in the kdelibs build directory after the build is completed.
|There might be missing dependencies on your system! They are easily overlooked in the output of cmakekde. You might want to do a cmake $KDE_SRC/KDE/MODULE_NAME prior to compiling any kde modules (like kdelibs, kdepimlibs etc.)|
There are additional CMake modules in kdelibs/cmake/modules/ that are necessary for building KDE4 applications. These will be installed for you when kdelibs itself is installed.
If you have problems compiling kdelibs, first make sure the software in the Required Software section above is installed and works. Other possible hints include:
If cmakekde still gives the same error then try this
cd cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=$KDEDIR \ -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=debugfull \ -DKDE4_BUILD_TESTS=ON \ ~/kde/src/KDE/kdelibs make make install
CMake Error: KDE Requires Qt to be built with SSL support
, install openssl-devel, remove CMakeCache.txt and re-compile QT.
kdelibs/kimgio/ico.cpp:188: undefined reference to `QImage::jumpTable()'it means you compiled QT without QT3 support(no, linking to a true QT3 install won't work)
After kdelibs, but before kdebase, you need to build and install kdepimlibs.
cs KDE # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdepimlibs cd kdepimlibs cmakekde
We go into the KDE source directory (line 1), download the source code for kdepimlibs using subversion (line 2) and then go into the new ~/kde/src/KDE/kdepimlibs directory (line 3). We then commence the build (line 4). This will leave us in the kdepimlibs build directory after the build is completed.
If you have trouble compiling kdepimlibs:
kdebase is divided into three parts:
You can build all of kdebase at once, which is described in the recipe below. If you only want to build kdebase-runtime, which is the only requirement, you can replace
cd kdebase with
cd kdebase/runtime in the recipe below.
cs KDE # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdebase cd kdebase cmakekde
If you have troubles compiling kdebase:
You can now run KDE 4 programs (e.g. kwrite) by typing:
ssh -X kde-devel@localhost kwrite
KUniqueApplication: Cannot find the D-Bus session server
check if you can access the display, e.g. type
and see if a clock appears on the screen.
Error: standard icon theme "oxygen" not found! ASSERT: "!isEmpty()" in file /home/kde-devel/qt-copy/include/QtCore/../../src/corelib/tools/qlist.h, line 245 Aborted (core dumped)
You need to install kdebase - see above. It is enough to install the "runtime" directory from kdebase.
Although the API documentation for KDE is available online at api.kde.org, it is sometimes useful to have it on your own disk, for example when you want to use KDevelop for browsing the documentation or when you are not able to be online all the time.
Be aware that generating the API documentation can take several hours and takes almost half a gigabyte of diskspace. The generation is handled by a script in kdelibs/doc/api, you need doxygen to be able to run it.
To build the API documentation for kdelibs, type the following:
cs KDE/kdelibs # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more $KDE_SRC/KDE/kdelibs/doc/api/doxygen.sh \ --doxdatadir=$KDE_SRC/KDE/kdelibs/doc/common .
Repeat for other modules as desired.
cd <module home> $KDE_SRC/KDE/kdelibs/doc/api/doxygen.sh \ --doxdatadir=$KDE_SRC/KDE/kdelibs/doc/common .
Another, even easier method involves downloading this Doxyfile to your local system. Then simply change directory to where you want to create the documentation and run
% doxygen /path/to/Doxyfile
Then review the file doxygen.log to see the doxygen errors and warnings. You'll find the actual documentation in the apidocs subdirectory.
In order to keep the kde4 installation up to date, each of the modules installed should be updated periodically. As Monday is the day for big changes in kdelibs, Tuesday may be the best day to do this. For each module checked out, run svn up and make.
cs kdesupport # cs is not a typo
cb # cb is not a typo
make -j2 VERBOSE=1 && make install
Many modules in KDE contain a large number of programs which could take a long time to download and compile. In cases where you want to work only on a particular program or programs in a module, it is possible to download and compile particular folders. In some cases, certain folders are required for any build of the module. This is determined in the CMakeLists.txt file of the module. For example the kdegames CMakeLists.txt file lists:
macro_optional_add_subdirectory(doc) macro_optional_add_subdirectory(lskat) macro_optional_add_subdirectory(katomic)
So, the libkdegames and libkmahjongg directories are required to build any of kdegames. The cmake directory will also usually be required. All the other directories (doc, katomic etc) are optional. They will be built if present on your machine. In this example, we build kmahjongg and kbattleship:
svn co -N kdegames # The -N switch performs a non-recursive checkout
svn up libkdegames # Get required directories
svn up libkmahjongg
svn up cmake
svn up kbattleship # Get optional directories
svn up kmahjongg
What can happen over time, after some svn up commands, is that some of the tools used in the KDE build chain change their output format. For example, kcfg files are read by kconfig_compiler to produce configuration dialogs. CMake cannot detect those changes, and the compilation might fail. A workaround is to always force a re-generation of all such files:
find $KDE_SRC/KDE/kdebase -name "*.kcfg" | xargs touch
The same applies to ui files as produced by Qt designer.
You are now ready to start building other svn modules in the same fashion as you built kdebase, running and testing KDE4 or writing your own patches and applications.
See the Set up KDE 4 for development tutorial for how to start KDE 4 applications and how to use KDevelop to work on them.