Difference between revisions of "Development/Tutorials/Using KXmlGuiWindow"

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{{Template:I18n/Language Navigation Bar (zh_CN)|Development/Tutorials/创建主窗口}}
+
<languages/>
 +
<translate>
 +
<!--T:1-->
 
{{TutorialBrowser|
 
{{TutorialBrowser|
 +
series=Beginner Tutorial|
 +
name=How To Use KXmlGuiWindow|
 +
pre=[[Development/Tutorials/First_program|Tutorial 1 - Hello World]]|
 +
next=[[Development/Tutorials/Using_Actions|Tutorial 3 - QActions and XMLGUI]]|
 +
reading={{class|KXmlGuiWindow}}
 +
}}
  
series=初学者教程|
+
==Abstract== <!--T:2-->
  
name=创建主窗口|
+
<!--T:3-->
 +
This tutorial carries on from [[Development/Tutorials/First_program/KF5|First Program Tutorial]] and will introduce the {{class|KXmlGuiWindow}} class.
  
pre=[[Development/Tutorials/First_program (zh_CN)|教程1 - Hello World]]|
+
<!--T:4-->
 +
In the previous tutorial, the program caused a dialog box to pop up but we're going to take steps towards a functioning application.
  
next=[[Development/Tutorials/Using_KActions|教程3 - 使用KActions]]|
 
  
reading={{class|KXmlGuiWindow}}
+
<!--T:5-->
}}
+
[[image:tutorial2-kf5.png|frame|center]]
  
== 摘要 ==
+
==KXmlGuiWindow== <!--T:6-->
本教程承接上一讲[[Development/Tutorials/First_program (zh_CN)|教程1 - Hello World]] ,进一步介绍{{class|KXmlGuiWindow}}类的使用。
 
  
在上一讲中,程序只是显示了一个弹出框。在本讲中,我们要让我们的程序具备更加实际功能。
+
<!--T:7-->
 +
{{class|KXmlGuiWindow}} provides a full main window view with menubars, toolbars, a statusbar and a main area in the centre for a large widget. For example, the help-menu is predefined. Most KDE applications will derive from this class as it provides an easy way to define menu and toolbar layouts through XML files (this technology is called XMLGUI and is part of the KF5::XmlGui framework). While we will not be using XMLGUI in ''this'' tutorial, we will use it in the next.
  
[[image:introtokdetutorial2.png|frame|center]]
+
<!--T:8-->
 +
In order to have a useful KXmlGuiWindow, we must subclass it. So we create two files, a <tt>mainwindow.cpp</tt> and a <tt>mainwindow.h</tt> which will contain our code.
  
== 使用KXmlGuiWindow ==
+
===mainwindow.h=== <!--T:9-->
 +
</translate>
  
为了得到一个可用的KXmlGuiWindow,我们必须对它子类化。为此,我们创建两个文件:<tt>mainwindow.cpp</tt>和<tt>mainwindow.h</tt>,在其中保存我们的派生类代码。我们的类继承自KXmlGuiWindow,因为它使用XML来定义程序的菜单结构。
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp-qt">
 
 
===mainwindow.h===
 
<code cppqt>
 
 
#ifndef MAINWINDOW_H
 
#ifndef MAINWINDOW_H
 
#define MAINWINDOW_H
 
#define MAINWINDOW_H
 
+
 
#include <KXmlGuiWindow>
 
#include <KXmlGuiWindow>
#include <KTextEdit>
 
  
 +
class KTextEdit;
 +
 
class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow
 
class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow
 
{
 
{
 
   public:
 
   public:
     MainWindow(QWidget *parent=0);
+
     explicit MainWindow(QWidget *parent = nullptr);
+
 
   private:
 
   private:
 
     KTextEdit* textArea;
 
     KTextEdit* textArea;
 
};
 
};
 
+
 
#endif
 
#endif
</code>
+
</syntaxhighlight>
首先,我们在第7行声明了KXmlGuiWindow的一个派生类:<tt>class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow</tt>.
 
  
接下来我们声明了一个构造函数<tt>MainWindow(QWidget *parent=0);</tt>.
+
<translate>
 +
<!--T:10-->
 +
First we subclass KXmlGuiWindow with <tt>class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow</tt> then we declare the constructor with <tt>MainWindow(QWidget *parent = nullptr);</tt>.
  
最后我们定义了一个指针类型的成员变量,它将被用来指向我们用来构成程序主体的KTextEdit对象。{{class|KTextEdit}}是一个通用的RichText编辑器,并具有很多KDE特有的优点,如光标自动隐藏等。
+
<!--T:11-->
 +
And finally, we declare a pointer to the object that will make up the bulk of our program. {{class|KTextEdit}} is a generic rich text editing widget with some niceties like cursor auto-hiding.
  
===mainwindow.cpp===
+
===mainwindow.cpp=== <!--T:12-->
<code cppqt>
+
</translate>
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp-qt">
 
#include "mainwindow.h"
 
#include "mainwindow.h"
 +
 +
#include <KTextEdit>
  
 
MainWindow::MainWindow(QWidget *parent) : KXmlGuiWindow(parent)
 
MainWindow::MainWindow(QWidget *parent) : KXmlGuiWindow(parent)
 
{
 
{
   textArea = new KTextEdit;
+
   textArea = new KTextEdit();
 
   setCentralWidget(textArea);
 
   setCentralWidget(textArea);
 
   setupGUI();
 
   setupGUI();
 
}
 
}
</code>
+
</syntaxhighlight>
首先,很自然的,我们在第一行首先声明包含了含有类声明的头文件。
 
  
在第五行,我们初始化了一个KTextEdit对象并将它赋给之前定义的成员变量。接下来在第6行,我们调用<tt>KXmlGuiWindow</tt>内置的<tt>setCentralWidget()</tt>函数,它告诉程序应该将什么东西显示在窗口的中央。
+
<translate>
 +
<!--T:13-->
 +
First, of course, we have to include the header file containing the class declaration.
  
最终, <tt>KXmlGuiWindow::setupGUI()</tt>被调用,它会替我们完成很多底层的工作,并创建一个缺省的菜单(包含“设置”和“帮助”)。
+
<!--T:14-->
 +
We initialise our text editor with an object and use KXmlGuiWindow's built-in setCentralWidget() function on it which tells the KXmlGuiWindow what should appear in the central section of the window.
  
==Back to main.cpp==
+
<!--T:15-->
 +
Finally, KXmlGuiWindow::setupGUI() is called which does a lot of behind-the-scenes stuff and creates the default menu bars (Settings, Help).
 +
 
 +
==Back to main.cpp== <!--T:16-->
 +
 
 +
<!--T:17-->
 
In order to actually run this window, we need to add a few lines in main.cpp:
 
In order to actually run this window, we need to add a few lines in main.cpp:
===main.cpp===
+
 
<code cppqt>
+
===main.cpp=== <!--T:18-->
#include <KApplication>
+
 
 +
<!--T:19-->
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp-qt">
 +
#include <cstdlib>
 +
#include <QApplication>
 +
#include <QCommandLineParser>
 
#include <KAboutData>
 
#include <KAboutData>
#include <KCmdLineArgs>
+
#include <KLocalizedString>
 
 
 
#include "mainwindow.h"
 
#include "mainwindow.h"
 
+
 
int main (int argc, char *argv[])
 
int main (int argc, char *argv[])
 
{
 
{
  KAboutData aboutData( "tutorial2", 0,
+
    QApplication app(argc, argv);
      ki18n("Tutorial 2"), "1.0",
+
    KLocalizedString::setApplicationDomain("tutorial2");
      ki18n("A simple text area"),
+
   
      KAboutData::License_GPL,
+
    KAboutData aboutData(
      ki18n("Copyright (c) 2007 Developer") );
+
                        // The program name used internally. (componentName)
  KCmdLineArgs::init( argc, argv, &aboutData );
+
                        QStringLiteral("tutorial2"),
 
+
                        // A displayable program name string. (displayName)
  KApplication app;
+
                        i18n("Tutorial 2"),
 +
                        // The program version string. (version)
 +
                        QStringLiteral("1.0"),
 +
                        // Short description of what the app does. (shortDescription)
 +
                        i18n("A simple text area"),
 +
                        // The license this code is released under
 +
                        KAboutLicense::GPL,
 +
                        // Copyright Statement (copyrightStatement = QString())
 +
                        i18n("(c) 2015"),
 +
                        // Optional text shown in the About box.
 +
                        // Can contain any information desired. (otherText)
 +
                        i18n("Some text..."),
 +
                        // The program homepage string. (homePageAddress = QString())
 +
                        QStringLiteral("http://example.com/"),
 +
                        // The bug report email address
 +
                        // (bugsEmailAddress = QLatin1String("[email protected]")
 +
                        QStringLiteral("[email protected]"));
 +
    aboutData.addAuthor(i18n("Name"), i18n("Task"), QStringLiteral("[email protected]"),
 +
                        QStringLiteral("http://your.website.com"), QStringLiteral("OSC Username"));
 +
    KAboutData::setApplicationData(aboutData);
 
   
 
   
  MainWindow* window = new MainWindow();
+
    QCommandLineParser parser;
  window->show();
+
    aboutData.setupCommandLine(&parser);
 +
    parser.process(app);
 +
    aboutData.processCommandLine(&parser);
 +
   
 +
    MainWindow* window = new MainWindow();
 +
    window->show();
 +
   
 +
    return app.exec();
 +
}
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
  
  return app.exec();
+
<!--T:20-->
}
+
Again, we include our new header file in order to create our MainWindow object which we then display.
</code>
+
 
The only new lines here (compared to Tutorial 1) are 18 and 19. On line 18, we create our MainWindow object and then on line 19, we display it.
+
==CMake== <!--T:21-->
 +
 
 +
<!--T:22-->
 +
The best way to build the program is to use CMake. We add <tt>mainwindow.cpp</tt> to the sources list, include the XmlGui and TextWidgets (for KTextEdit) frameworks, and replace all <tt>tutorial1</tt> text to <tt>tutorial2</tt>.
 +
 
 +
===CMakeLists.txt=== <!--T:23-->
 +
</translate>
 +
 
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="cmake">
 +
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.0)
  
==CMake==
 
The best way to build the program is to use CMake. All that's changed since tutorial 1 is that <tt>mainwindow.cpp</tt> has been added to the sources list and any <tt>tutorial1</tt> has become <tt>tutorial2</tt>.
 
===CMakeLists.txt===
 
<code ini>
 
 
project (tutorial2)
 
project (tutorial2)
  
find_package(KDE4 REQUIRED)
+
set(QT_MIN_VERSION "5.3.0")
include_directories( ${KDE4_INCLUDES} )
+
set(KF5_MIN_VERSION "5.2.0")
 +
 
 +
find_package(ECM 1.0.0 REQUIRED NO_MODULE)
 +
set(CMAKE_MODULE_PATH ${ECM_MODULE_PATH} ${ECM_KDE_MODULE_DIR} ${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR}/cmake)
 +
 
 +
include(KDEInstallDirs)
 +
include(KDECMakeSettings)
 +
include(KDECompilerSettings NO_POLICY_SCOPE)
 +
include(FeatureSummary)
 +
 
 +
find_package(Qt5 ${QT_MIN_VERSION} CONFIG REQUIRED COMPONENTS
 +
    Core    # QCommandLineParser, QStringLiteral
 +
    Widgets # QApplication
 +
)
 +
 
 +
find_package(KF5 ${KF5_MIN_VERSION} REQUIRED COMPONENTS
 +
    CoreAddons      # KAboutData
 +
    I18n            # KLocalizedString
 +
    XmlGui          # KXmlGuiWindow
 +
    TextWidgets    # KTextEdit
 +
)
 +
 
 +
feature_summary(WHAT ALL INCLUDE_QUIET_PACKAGES FATAL_ON_MISSING_REQUIRED_PACKAGES)
 +
   
 +
set(tutorial2_SRCS main.cpp mainwindow.cpp)
 +
 
 +
add_executable(tutorial2 ${tutorial2_SRCS})
  
set(tutorial2_SRCS
+
target_link_libraries(tutorial2
main.cpp
+
    Qt5::Widgets
mainwindow.cpp
+
    KF5::CoreAddons
 +
    KF5::I18n
 +
    KF5::XmlGui
 +
    KF5::TextWidgets
 
)
 
)
  
kde4_add_executable(tutorial2 ${tutorial2_SRCS})
+
install(TARGETS tutorial2 ${KDE_INSTALL_TARGETS_DEFAULT_ARGS})
target_link_libraries( tutorial2 ${KDE4_KDEUI_LIBS})
+
</syntaxhighlight>
</code>
 
  
=== 编译运行 ===
+
<translate>
To compile, link and run it, use:
+
=== Compile and run === <!--T:24-->
cmake . && make && ./tutorial2
+
The best way to compile, link and run it is to [[Getting_Started/Build|set up a correct build environment]]. But for a simple tutorial like this, it's enough to just create a build directory and build from there. This command takes cafe of all of that in one line:
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
 +
mkdir build && cd build && cmake .. && make && ./tutorial2
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
  
== 继续前进 ==
+
==Moving On== <!--T:25-->
Now you can move on to [[Development/Tutorials/Using_KActions|using KActions]].
+
Now you can move on to [[Development/Tutorials/Using_Actions|Using Actions]].
  
 +
<!--T:26-->
 
[[Category:C++]]
 
[[Category:C++]]
 +
</translate>

Latest revision as of 18:48, 17 October 2019

Other languages:
English • ‎français • ‎português do Brasil • ‎українська
How To Use KXmlGuiWindow
Tutorial Series   Beginner Tutorial
Previous   Tutorial 1 - Hello World
What's Next   Tutorial 3 - QActions and XMLGUI
Further Reading   KXmlGuiWindow

Abstract

This tutorial carries on from First Program Tutorial and will introduce the KXmlGuiWindow class.

In the previous tutorial, the program caused a dialog box to pop up but we're going to take steps towards a functioning application.


Tutorial2-kf5.png

KXmlGuiWindow

KXmlGuiWindow provides a full main window view with menubars, toolbars, a statusbar and a main area in the centre for a large widget. For example, the help-menu is predefined. Most KDE applications will derive from this class as it provides an easy way to define menu and toolbar layouts through XML files (this technology is called XMLGUI and is part of the KF5::XmlGui framework). While we will not be using XMLGUI in this tutorial, we will use it in the next.

In order to have a useful KXmlGuiWindow, we must subclass it. So we create two files, a mainwindow.cpp and a mainwindow.h which will contain our code.

mainwindow.h

#ifndef MAINWINDOW_H
#define MAINWINDOW_H
 
#include <KXmlGuiWindow>

class KTextEdit;
 
class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow
{
  public:
    explicit MainWindow(QWidget *parent = nullptr);
 
  private:
    KTextEdit* textArea;
};
 
#endif

First we subclass KXmlGuiWindow with class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow then we declare the constructor with MainWindow(QWidget *parent = nullptr);.

And finally, we declare a pointer to the object that will make up the bulk of our program. KTextEdit is a generic rich text editing widget with some niceties like cursor auto-hiding.

mainwindow.cpp

#include "mainwindow.h"

#include <KTextEdit>

MainWindow::MainWindow(QWidget *parent) : KXmlGuiWindow(parent)
{
  textArea = new KTextEdit();
  setCentralWidget(textArea);
  setupGUI();
}

First, of course, we have to include the header file containing the class declaration.

We initialise our text editor with an object and use KXmlGuiWindow's built-in setCentralWidget() function on it which tells the KXmlGuiWindow what should appear in the central section of the window.

Finally, KXmlGuiWindow::setupGUI() is called which does a lot of behind-the-scenes stuff and creates the default menu bars (Settings, Help).

Back to main.cpp

In order to actually run this window, we need to add a few lines in main.cpp:

main.cpp

#include <cstdlib>
#include <QApplication>
#include <QCommandLineParser>
#include <KAboutData>
#include <KLocalizedString>
#include "mainwindow.h"
 
int main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
    QApplication app(argc, argv);
    KLocalizedString::setApplicationDomain("tutorial2");
    
    KAboutData aboutData(
                         // The program name used internally. (componentName)
                         QStringLiteral("tutorial2"),
                         // A displayable program name string. (displayName)
                         i18n("Tutorial 2"),
                         // The program version string. (version)
                         QStringLiteral("1.0"),
                         // Short description of what the app does. (shortDescription)
                         i18n("A simple text area"),
                         // The license this code is released under
                         KAboutLicense::GPL,
                         // Copyright Statement (copyrightStatement = QString())
                         i18n("(c) 2015"),
                         // Optional text shown in the About box.
                         // Can contain any information desired. (otherText)
                         i18n("Some text..."),
                         // The program homepage string. (homePageAddress = QString())
                         QStringLiteral("http://example.com/"),
                         // The bug report email address
                         // (bugsEmailAddress = QLatin1String("[email protected]")
                         QStringLiteral("[email protected]"));
    aboutData.addAuthor(i18n("Name"), i18n("Task"), QStringLiteral("[email protected]"),
                         QStringLiteral("http://your.website.com"), QStringLiteral("OSC Username"));
    KAboutData::setApplicationData(aboutData);
 
    QCommandLineParser parser;
    aboutData.setupCommandLine(&parser);
    parser.process(app);
    aboutData.processCommandLine(&parser);
    
    MainWindow* window = new MainWindow();
    window->show();
    
    return app.exec();
}

Again, we include our new header file in order to create our MainWindow object which we then display.

CMake

The best way to build the program is to use CMake. We add mainwindow.cpp to the sources list, include the XmlGui and TextWidgets (for KTextEdit) frameworks, and replace all tutorial1 text to tutorial2.

CMakeLists.txt

cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.0)

project (tutorial2)

set(QT_MIN_VERSION "5.3.0")
set(KF5_MIN_VERSION "5.2.0")

find_package(ECM 1.0.0 REQUIRED NO_MODULE)
set(CMAKE_MODULE_PATH ${ECM_MODULE_PATH} ${ECM_KDE_MODULE_DIR} ${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR}/cmake)

include(KDEInstallDirs)
include(KDECMakeSettings)
include(KDECompilerSettings NO_POLICY_SCOPE)
include(FeatureSummary)

find_package(Qt5 ${QT_MIN_VERSION} CONFIG REQUIRED COMPONENTS 
    Core    # QCommandLineParser, QStringLiteral
    Widgets # QApplication 
)

find_package(KF5 ${KF5_MIN_VERSION} REQUIRED COMPONENTS
    CoreAddons      # KAboutData
    I18n            # KLocalizedString
    XmlGui          # KXmlGuiWindow
    TextWidgets     # KTextEdit
)

feature_summary(WHAT ALL INCLUDE_QUIET_PACKAGES FATAL_ON_MISSING_REQUIRED_PACKAGES)
    
set(tutorial2_SRCS main.cpp mainwindow.cpp)

add_executable(tutorial2 ${tutorial2_SRCS})

target_link_libraries(tutorial2
    Qt5::Widgets
    KF5::CoreAddons
    KF5::I18n
    KF5::XmlGui
    KF5::TextWidgets
)

install(TARGETS tutorial2  ${KDE_INSTALL_TARGETS_DEFAULT_ARGS})

Compile and run

The best way to compile, link and run it is to set up a correct build environment. But for a simple tutorial like this, it's enough to just create a build directory and build from there. This command takes cafe of all of that in one line:

mkdir build && cd build && cmake .. && make && ./tutorial2

Moving On

Now you can move on to Using Actions.


This page was last edited on 17 October 2019, at 18:48. Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 4.0 unless otherwise noted.