Difference between revisions of "Development/Tutorials/Using KXmlGuiWindow"

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{{Template:I18n/Language Navigation Bar (zh_CN)|Development/Tutorials/创建主窗口}}
+
 
 
{{TutorialBrowser|
 
{{TutorialBrowser|
  
series=初学者教程|
+
series=Beginner Tutorial|
  
name=创建主窗口|
+
name=How To Use KXmlGuiWindow|
  
pre=[[Development/Tutorials/First_program (zh_CN)|教程1 - Hello World]]|
+
pre=[[Development/Tutorials/First_program|Tutorial 1 - Hello World]]|
  
next=[[Development/Tutorials/Using_KActions|教程3 - 使用KActions]]|  
+
next=[[Development/Tutorials/Using_Actions|Tutorial 3 - QActions and XMLGUI]]|  
  
 
reading={{class|KXmlGuiWindow}}
 
reading={{class|KXmlGuiWindow}}
 
}}
 
}}
  
== 摘要 ==
+
==Abstract==
本教程承接上一讲[[Development/Tutorials/First_program (zh_CN)|教程1 - Hello World]] ,进一步介绍{{class|KXmlGuiWindow}}类的使用。
 
  
在上一讲中,程序只是显示了一个弹出框。在本讲中,我们要让我们的程序具备更加实际功能。
+
This tutorial carries on from [[Development/Tutorials/First_program/KF5|First Program Tutorial]] and will introduce the {{class|KXmlGuiWindow}} class.
  
[[image:introtokdetutorial2.png|frame|center]]
+
In the previous tutorial, the program caused a dialog box to pop up but we're going to take steps towards a functioning application.
  
== 使用KXmlGuiWindow ==
 
  
In order to have a useful KXmlGuiWindow, we must subclass it. So we create two files, a <tt>mainwindow.cpp</tt> and a <tt>mainwindow.h</tt> which will contain our code. Our class inherits from KXmlGuiWindow because it uses XML e.g. to define the application's menu structure.
+
[[image:tutorial2-kf5.png|frame|center]]
 +
 
 +
==KXmlGuiWindow==
 +
 
 +
{{class|KXmlGuiWindow}} provides a full main window view with menubars, toolbars, a statusbar and a main area in the centre for a large widget. For example the help-menu is predefined. Most KDE applications will derive from this class as it provides an easy way to define menu and toolbar layouts through XML files (this technology is called XMLGUI and is part of the KF5::XmlGui framework). While we will not be using XMLGUI in ''this'' tutorial, we will use it in the next.
 +
 
 +
In order to have a useful KXmlGuiWindow, we must subclass it. So we create two files, a <tt>mainwindow.cpp</tt> and a <tt>mainwindow.h</tt> which will contain our code.
  
 
===mainwindow.h===
 
===mainwindow.h===
<code cppqt>
+
 
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp-qt">
 
#ifndef MAINWINDOW_H
 
#ifndef MAINWINDOW_H
 
#define MAINWINDOW_H
 
#define MAINWINDOW_H
 
+
 
#include <KXmlGuiWindow>
 
#include <KXmlGuiWindow>
#include <KTextEdit>
 
  
 +
class KTextEdit;
 +
 
class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow
 
class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow
 
{
 
{
 
   public:
 
   public:
     MainWindow(QWidget *parent=0);
+
     explicit MainWindow(QWidget *parent = nullptr);
+
 
   private:
 
   private:
 
     KTextEdit* textArea;
 
     KTextEdit* textArea;
 
};
 
};
 
+
 
#endif
 
#endif
</code>
+
</syntaxhighlight>
First we Subclass KXmlGuiWindow on line 7 with <tt>class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow</tt>.
+
First we subclass KXmlGuiWindow with <tt>class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow</tt> then we declare the constructor with <tt>MainWindow(QWidget *parent = nullptr);</tt>.
  
Then we declare the constructor with <tt>MainWindow(QWidget *parent=0);</tt>.
+
And finally we declare a pointer to the object that will make up the bulk of our program. {{class|KTextEdit}} is a generic rich text editing widget with some niceties like cursor auto-hiding.
  
And finally we declare a pointer to the object that will make up the bulk of our program. {{class|KTextEdit}} is a generic richtext editor with some KDE niceties like cursor auto-hiding.
+
===mainwindow.cpp===
  
===mainwindow.cpp===
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp-qt">
<code cppqt>
 
 
#include "mainwindow.h"
 
#include "mainwindow.h"
 +
 +
#include <KTextEdit>
  
 
MainWindow::MainWindow(QWidget *parent) : KXmlGuiWindow(parent)
 
MainWindow::MainWindow(QWidget *parent) : KXmlGuiWindow(parent)
 
{
 
{
   textArea = new KTextEdit;
+
   textArea = new KTextEdit();
 
   setCentralWidget(textArea);
 
   setCentralWidget(textArea);
 
   setupGUI();
 
   setupGUI();
 
}
 
}
</code>
+
</syntaxhighlight>
First, of course, on line 1 we have to include the header file containing the class declaration.
+
First, of course, we have to include the header file containing the class declaration.
  
On line 5, we initialise our text editor with an object. Then on line 6 we use the built-in setCentralWidget() function which tells the KXmlGuiWindow what should appear in the central section of the window.
+
We initialise our text editor with an object and use KXmlGuiWindow's built-in setCentralWidget() function on it which tells the KXmlGuiWindow what should appear in the central section of the window.
  
 
Finally, KXmlGuiWindow::setupGUI() is called which does a lot of behind-the-scenes stuff and creates the default menu bars (Settings, Help).
 
Finally, KXmlGuiWindow::setupGUI() is called which does a lot of behind-the-scenes stuff and creates the default menu bars (Settings, Help).
Line 68: Line 75:
 
==Back to main.cpp==
 
==Back to main.cpp==
 
In order to actually run this window, we need to add a few lines in main.cpp:
 
In order to actually run this window, we need to add a few lines in main.cpp:
 +
 
===main.cpp===
 
===main.cpp===
<code cppqt>
+
 
#include <KApplication>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp-qt">
 +
#include <cstdlib>
 +
 +
#include <QApplication>
 +
#include <QCommandLineParser>
 +
 
 
#include <KAboutData>
 
#include <KAboutData>
#include <KCmdLineArgs>
+
#include <KLocalizedString>
  
 
#include "mainwindow.h"
 
#include "mainwindow.h"
 
+
 
int main (int argc, char *argv[])
 
int main (int argc, char *argv[])
 
{
 
{
  KAboutData aboutData( "tutorial2", 0,
+
    QApplication app(argc, argv);
      ki18n("Tutorial 2"), "1.0",
+
    KLocalizedString::setApplicationDomain("tutorial2");
      ki18n("A simple text area"),
+
   
      KAboutData::License_GPL,
+
    KAboutData aboutData(
      ki18n("Copyright (c) 2007 Developer") );
+
                        // The program name used internally. (componentName)
  KCmdLineArgs::init( argc, argv, &aboutData );
+
                        QStringLiteral("tutorial2"),
 
+
                        // A displayable program name string. (displayName)
  KApplication app;
+
                        i18n("Tutorial 2"),
 +
                        // The program version string. (version)
 +
                        QStringLiteral("1.0"),
 +
                        // Short description of what the app does. (shortDescription)
 +
                        i18n("A simple text area"),
 +
                        // The license this code is released under
 +
                        KAboutLicense::GPL,
 +
                        // Copyright Statement (copyrightStatement = QString())
 +
                        i18n("(c) 2015"),
 +
                        // Optional text shown in the About box.
 +
                        // Can contain any information desired. (otherText)
 +
                        i18n("Some text..."),
 +
                        // The program homepage string. (homePageAddress = QString())
 +
                        QStringLiteral("http://example.com/"),
 +
                        // The bug report email address
 +
                        // (bugsEmailAddress = QLatin1String("submit@bugs.kde.org")
 +
                        QStringLiteral("submit@bugs.kde.org"));
 +
    aboutData.addAuthor(i18n("Name"), i18n("Task"), QStringLiteral("your@email.com"),
 +
                        QStringLiteral("http://your.website.com"), QStringLiteral("OSC Username"));
 +
    KAboutData::setApplicationData(aboutData);
 
   
 
   
  MainWindow* window = new MainWindow();
+
    QCommandLineParser parser;
  window->show();
+
    aboutData.setupCommandLine(&parser);
 
+
    parser.process(app);
  return app.exec();
+
    aboutData.processCommandLine(&parser);
 +
   
 +
    MainWindow* window = new MainWindow();
 +
    window->show();
 +
   
 +
    return app.exec();
 
}
 
}
</code>
+
</syntaxhighlight>
The only new lines here (compared to Tutorial 1) are 18 and 19. On line 18, we create our MainWindow object and then on line 19, we display it.
+
Again, we include our new header file in order to create our MainWindow object which we then display.
  
 
==CMake==
 
==CMake==
The best way to build the program is to use CMake. All that's changed since tutorial 1 is that <tt>mainwindow.cpp</tt> has been added to the sources list and any <tt>tutorial1</tt> has become <tt>tutorial2</tt>.
+
The best way to build the program is to use CMake. We add <tt>mainwindow.cpp</tt> to the sources list, include the XmlGui and TextWidgets (for KTextEdit) frameworks, and replace all <tt>tutorial1</tt> text to <tt>tutorial2</tt>.
 +
 
 
===CMakeLists.txt===
 
===CMakeLists.txt===
<code ini>
+
 
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="cmake">
 +
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.0)
 +
 
 
project (tutorial2)
 
project (tutorial2)
  
find_package(KDE4 REQUIRED)
+
set(QT_MIN_VERSION "5.3.0")
include_directories( ${KDE4_INCLUDES} )
+
set(KF5_MIN_VERSION "5.2.0")
 +
 
 +
find_package(ECM 1.0.0 REQUIRED NO_MODULE)
 +
set(CMAKE_MODULE_PATH ${ECM_MODULE_PATH} ${ECM_KDE_MODULE_DIR} ${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR}/cmake)
 +
 
 +
include(KDEInstallDirs)
 +
include(KDECMakeSettings)
 +
include(KDECompilerSettings NO_POLICY_SCOPE)
 +
include(FeatureSummary)
 +
 
 +
find_package(Qt5 ${QT_MIN_VERSION} CONFIG REQUIRED COMPONENTS
 +
    Core    # QCommandLineParser, QStringLiteral
 +
    Widgets # QApplication
 +
)
 +
 
 +
find_package(KF5 ${KF5_MIN_VERSION} REQUIRED COMPONENTS
 +
    CoreAddons      # KAboutData
 +
    I18n            # KLocalizedString
 +
    XmlGui          # KXmlGuiWindow
 +
    TextWidgets    # KTextEdit
 +
)
 +
 
 +
feature_summary(WHAT ALL INCLUDE_QUIET_PACKAGES FATAL_ON_MISSING_REQUIRED_PACKAGES)
 +
   
 +
set(tutorial2_SRCS main.cpp mainwindow.cpp)
 +
 
 +
add_executable(tutorial2 ${tutorial2_SRCS})
  
set(tutorial2_SRCS
+
target_link_libraries(tutorial2
main.cpp
+
    Qt5::Widgets
mainwindow.cpp
+
    KF5::CoreAddons
 +
    KF5::I18n
 +
    KF5::XmlGui
 +
    KF5::TextWidgets
 
)
 
)
  
kde4_add_executable(tutorial2 ${tutorial2_SRCS})
+
install(TARGETS tutorial2 ${KDE_INSTALL_TARGETS_DEFAULT_ARGS})
target_link_libraries( tutorial2 ${KDE4_KDEUI_LIBS})
+
</syntaxhighlight>
</code>
 
  
=== 编译运行 ===
+
=== Compile and run ===
To compile, link and run it, use:
+
The best way to compile, link and run it is to [[Getting_Started/Build|set up a correct build environment]]. But for a simple tutorial like this, it's enough to just create a build directory and build from there. This command takes cafe of all of that in one line:
cmake . && make && ./tutorial2
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
 +
mkdir build && cd build && cmake .. && make && ./tutorial2
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
  
== 继续前进 ==
+
==Moving On==
Now you can move on to [[Development/Tutorials/Using_KActions|using KActions]].
+
Now you can move on to [[Development/Tutorials/Using_Actions|Using Actions]].
  
 
[[Category:C++]]
 
[[Category:C++]]

Latest revision as of 13:34, 29 May 2019

How To Use KXmlGuiWindow
Tutorial Series   Beginner Tutorial
Previous   Tutorial 1 - Hello World
What's Next   Tutorial 3 - QActions and XMLGUI
Further Reading   KXmlGuiWindow

Abstract

This tutorial carries on from First Program Tutorial and will introduce the KXmlGuiWindow class.

In the previous tutorial, the program caused a dialog box to pop up but we're going to take steps towards a functioning application.


Tutorial2-kf5.png

KXmlGuiWindow

KXmlGuiWindow provides a full main window view with menubars, toolbars, a statusbar and a main area in the centre for a large widget. For example the help-menu is predefined. Most KDE applications will derive from this class as it provides an easy way to define menu and toolbar layouts through XML files (this technology is called XMLGUI and is part of the KF5::XmlGui framework). While we will not be using XMLGUI in this tutorial, we will use it in the next.

In order to have a useful KXmlGuiWindow, we must subclass it. So we create two files, a mainwindow.cpp and a mainwindow.h which will contain our code.

mainwindow.h

#ifndef MAINWINDOW_H
#define MAINWINDOW_H
 
#include <KXmlGuiWindow>

class KTextEdit;
 
class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow
{
  public:
    explicit MainWindow(QWidget *parent = nullptr);
 
  private:
    KTextEdit* textArea;
};
 
#endif

First we subclass KXmlGuiWindow with class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow then we declare the constructor with MainWindow(QWidget *parent = nullptr);.

And finally we declare a pointer to the object that will make up the bulk of our program. KTextEdit is a generic rich text editing widget with some niceties like cursor auto-hiding.

mainwindow.cpp

#include "mainwindow.h"

#include <KTextEdit>

MainWindow::MainWindow(QWidget *parent) : KXmlGuiWindow(parent)
{
  textArea = new KTextEdit();
  setCentralWidget(textArea);
  setupGUI();
}

First, of course, we have to include the header file containing the class declaration.

We initialise our text editor with an object and use KXmlGuiWindow's built-in setCentralWidget() function on it which tells the KXmlGuiWindow what should appear in the central section of the window.

Finally, KXmlGuiWindow::setupGUI() is called which does a lot of behind-the-scenes stuff and creates the default menu bars (Settings, Help).

Back to main.cpp

In order to actually run this window, we need to add a few lines in main.cpp:

main.cpp

#include <cstdlib>
 
#include <QApplication>
#include <QCommandLineParser>

#include <KAboutData>
#include <KLocalizedString>

#include "mainwindow.h"
 
int main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
    QApplication app(argc, argv);
    KLocalizedString::setApplicationDomain("tutorial2");
    
    KAboutData aboutData(
                         // The program name used internally. (componentName)
                         QStringLiteral("tutorial2"),
                         // A displayable program name string. (displayName)
                         i18n("Tutorial 2"),
                         // The program version string. (version)
                         QStringLiteral("1.0"),
                         // Short description of what the app does. (shortDescription)
                         i18n("A simple text area"),
                         // The license this code is released under
                         KAboutLicense::GPL,
                         // Copyright Statement (copyrightStatement = QString())
                         i18n("(c) 2015"),
                         // Optional text shown in the About box.
                         // Can contain any information desired. (otherText)
                         i18n("Some text..."),
                         // The program homepage string. (homePageAddress = QString())
                         QStringLiteral("http://example.com/"),
                         // The bug report email address
                         // (bugsEmailAddress = QLatin1String("submit@bugs.kde.org")
                         QStringLiteral("submit@bugs.kde.org"));
    aboutData.addAuthor(i18n("Name"), i18n("Task"), QStringLiteral("your@email.com"),
                         QStringLiteral("http://your.website.com"), QStringLiteral("OSC Username"));
    KAboutData::setApplicationData(aboutData);
 
    QCommandLineParser parser;
    aboutData.setupCommandLine(&parser);
    parser.process(app);
    aboutData.processCommandLine(&parser);
    
    MainWindow* window = new MainWindow();
    window->show();
    
    return app.exec();
}

Again, we include our new header file in order to create our MainWindow object which we then display.

CMake

The best way to build the program is to use CMake. We add mainwindow.cpp to the sources list, include the XmlGui and TextWidgets (for KTextEdit) frameworks, and replace all tutorial1 text to tutorial2.

CMakeLists.txt

cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.0)

project (tutorial2)

set(QT_MIN_VERSION "5.3.0")
set(KF5_MIN_VERSION "5.2.0")

find_package(ECM 1.0.0 REQUIRED NO_MODULE)
set(CMAKE_MODULE_PATH ${ECM_MODULE_PATH} ${ECM_KDE_MODULE_DIR} ${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR}/cmake)

include(KDEInstallDirs)
include(KDECMakeSettings)
include(KDECompilerSettings NO_POLICY_SCOPE)
include(FeatureSummary)

find_package(Qt5 ${QT_MIN_VERSION} CONFIG REQUIRED COMPONENTS 
    Core    # QCommandLineParser, QStringLiteral
    Widgets # QApplication 
)

find_package(KF5 ${KF5_MIN_VERSION} REQUIRED COMPONENTS
    CoreAddons      # KAboutData
    I18n            # KLocalizedString
    XmlGui          # KXmlGuiWindow
    TextWidgets     # KTextEdit
)

feature_summary(WHAT ALL INCLUDE_QUIET_PACKAGES FATAL_ON_MISSING_REQUIRED_PACKAGES)
    
set(tutorial2_SRCS main.cpp mainwindow.cpp)

add_executable(tutorial2 ${tutorial2_SRCS})

target_link_libraries(tutorial2
    Qt5::Widgets
    KF5::CoreAddons
    KF5::I18n
    KF5::XmlGui
    KF5::TextWidgets
)

install(TARGETS tutorial2  ${KDE_INSTALL_TARGETS_DEFAULT_ARGS})

Compile and run

The best way to compile, link and run it is to set up a correct build environment. But for a simple tutorial like this, it's enough to just create a build directory and build from there. This command takes cafe of all of that in one line:

mkdir build && cd build && cmake .. && make && ./tutorial2

Moving On

Now you can move on to Using Actions.


This page was last edited on 29 May 2019, at 13:34. Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 4.0 unless otherwise noted.