This tutorial will show you the basics for Git.
First, you should tell Git your name and email address. These information will be shown in the log and in commits. Also, you should allow color in Git. There are other color-related features, but this tutorial is just about basics.
git config --global user.name "Your Name"
git config --global user.email email@example.com
git config --global color.ui true
In case you experience problems with colors you should test adding the following to your ~/.bashrc. The 'R' is the important part here.
There are two ways to get started with Git for KDE. If you're only wanting to get code to try it out, you can use the following commands:
git clone <REPOSITORY URL>
This creates a local copy of the upstream repository. Now change into that directory and code away. When you want to update:
Later, if you want to create a new Git repository and add files to it, try the preceeding commands:
$ git init
Initialized empty Git repository in .git/
$ echo "Test content" > testfile
Now we will check the status of the repository. Git will list one untracked file, that means the file has not yet been added to the repository.
$ git status
nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track)
In the next three commands the file 'testfile' will be added and commited. Then Git will check the status again.
$ git add testfile
$ git commit -m "This is the first commit"
Created initial commit 246d7aa: This is the first commit
1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-) create mode 100644 testfile
$ git status
nothing to commit (working directory clean)
Ok, as you can see the file has been commited. Now let's see what we change the contents of the file:
$ echo "new content" > testfile
$ git status
no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a") $ git commit -a -m "Second commit" Created commit 14a9802: Second commit
1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)
You see that Git noticed the changes in the file. "git commit -a" commits all changes in the repository. Note: This command does not add newly created files.
git branch shows you the branches of the repository, the one with the '*' is the active one. So let us create a new branch called "bugfix-branch" and assume we want to fix a branch there. After this fix (in this case the new file) we will merge back all the hard work into the master branch.
$ git branch
$ git branch bugfix-branch $ git checkout bugfix-branch Switched to branch "bugfix-branch" $ git branch
$ echo "a second file" > newfile $ git commit -a
nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track) $ git add newfile $ git commit Created commit 3264357: This file is here for a demonstration of Gits branch- and merge feature
1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-) create mode 100644 newfile
Ok, the bug is fixed now. Next step: Checkout the master branch and merge the two branches:
$ git checkout master
Switched to branch "master"
$ git merge bugfix-branch
newfile | 1 + 1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-) create mode 100644 newfile
$ ls newfile testfile
If you would have edited "testfile" in the bugfix-branch, then git would automatically try to merge the contents of "testfile" in the bugfix-branch with the contents of "testfile" in the master branch. Sometimes this can cause a merge conflict. In that case you have to manually edit the "testfile" in the master branch, and afterwards you do a "git commit -a" to complete the merge. Git indicates the conflicting lines in the file itself.
$ git log testfile
Author: Carsten Niehaus <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Date: Fri Apr 18 18:07:18 2008 +0200
commit 246d7aad05139314e7ff62a5becb6c930f72fb8f Author: Carsten Niehaus <email@example.com> Date: Fri Apr 18 18:06:33 2008 +0200
This is the first commit
git-svn cannot sync with SVN when you have local, uncommited changes. For that you are using git stash. That command move the local changes on a stack so that you can sync. After the sync you re-apply them to you Git tree and clear the stack. Very handy feature in many situations! Just do this:
git svn rebase
git stash apply
git stash clear
If you have local changes which you would like to revert use the following command. It will revert all local, uncommited changes.
git checkout -f