Development/Tutorials/Debugging/How to create useful crash reports (es)
Este documento describe cómo crear pilas de las últimas funciones ejecutadas de un casque de una aplicación KDE. Primero se muestra algo de información general y luego se describe cómo preparar KDE en varias distribuciones para obtener estas pilas. Esto debería ser bastante para la mayoría de los casos. Hay secciones adicionales sobre cómo obtener la pila de las últimas funciones ejecutas con el depurador GNU (GDB) y con Valgrind, que son útiles en algunos casos.
Cómo crear informes de fallos útiles
A good crash report at Bugzilla consists of two parts: a description of how to reproduce the crash and a backtrace of the crash. With one of those elements missing, it is much harder (if not impossible) for developers to tackle the problem.
A description should consist of more than only "it crashed". Try to describe everything you did prior to the crash. Did you click on a button, opened a particular website or file which caused problems? That little detail which may look useless to you may be useful for the developer, so just write it down.
A more insightful article on how to write good bug descriptions is available at this link, please read that before reporting bugs.
Don't attach the backtrace to the bug report. Instead, simply paste it. This way it is much easier for developers to search for duplicate reports, because attachments will not be searched.
If you paste a backtrace to a report, make sure you strip all but one or two of the
(no debugging symbols found)
lines from the backtrace as they make it harder to read.
Even though pasting backtraces directly is preferred over adding an attachment, please do not paste other things like logs (valgrind, strace or terminal output) or example data (mails, HTML files and so on). Use attachments for these items.
pila de las últimas funciones ejecutadas
Backtraces are essential. They may look meaningless to you, but they might actually contain a wealth of useful information. A backtrace describes which functions were called prior to the crash, so that developers may track down in which function the mess started. Having good backtraces has a downside: libraries and executables occupy much more disk space than their optimized counter parts. That's the reason why many distros choose to install stripped files, which results in useless backtraces:
(no debugging symbols found) Using host libthread_db library "/lib/tls/i686/cmov/libthread_db.so.1". (no debugging symbols found) (no debugging symbols found) (no debugging symbols found) (no debugging symbols found) (no debugging symbols found) (no debugging symbols found) (no debugging symbols found) [Thread debugging using libthread_db enabled] [New Thread -1233848624 (LWP 12212)] [New Thread -1255081072 (LWP 12820)] [New Thread -1240921200 (LWP 12819)] [New Thread -1266680944 (LWP 12818)] (no debugging symbols found) (no debugging symbols found) (no debugging symbols found) (no debugging symbols found) (no debugging symbols found) (no debugging symbols found) (no debugging symbols found) (no debugging symbols found) (no debugging symbols found) 0xffffe410 in __kernel_vsyscall ()
- 0 0xffffe410 in __kernel_vsyscall ()
- 1 0xb6a1210b in ?? () from /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libpthread.so.0
- 2 0xb6a85afe in ?? () from /usr/lib/libX11.so.6
- 3 0x00000003 in ?? ()
- 4 0x082149c0 in ?? ()
- 5 0x00003ffc in ?? ()
- 6 0x00000000 in ?? ()
But no worries, with some modifications you can create full blown backtraces for KDE applications.
Preparando los paquetes KDE
If your distribution has debugging-enabled packages, install them.
It is easy to see which debug packages you are missing from looking at the backtrace. For example, take the following line from a backtrace:
- 6 0xb7975bdc in ?? () from /usr/lib/libkmailprivate.so.4
The ?? indicates that the library libkmailprivate.so.4 does not have debug information, which might be available in separate debug packages. In this case, it is pretty easy to guess that you need to install debug packages for KMail to get a better backtrace.
Sometimes, you need to install more than one debug package to get a good backtrace. This depends on how the distribution splits up the packages. For example, for some distributions it is enough to install the debug package for kdepim to get enough debugging information for a crash in KMail, for other distributions there is an additional debug package just for KMail.
Here's a list of how to obtain debug packages for some distributions:
* Debian - Debian offers -dbg packages to easy create useful backtraces. Just install the corresponding -dbg package. e.g. kdepim-dbg for KMail crashes. The dependencies of -dbg makes sure to pull in the other right packages (kdelibs-dbg, gdb, and so on). * FreeBSD ports - Please refer to the KDE on FreeBSD FAQ. * Gentoo - Gentoo has its own document describing how to proceed. * Mandriva - Mandriva 2007.0 and up has additional debugging packages for all of KDE (in fact, for all of its packages). Just install the corresponding -debug package, like kdebase-debug and kdemultimedia-debug. You probably want to install kdelibs-debug anyways. o Note: the -debug packages are in separate repositories. For instance, for all packages in main, you'll find the debugging package in repository debug_main. * Kubuntu/Ubuntu - The Ubuntu family makes things quite easy. Every official KDE module has an additional package in the repository, suffixed with -dbg. Always install kdelibs5-dbg, because all KDE applications use kdelibs (kdelibs-dbg for KDE 3 applications). Then you should install a -dbg package for the application which crashed. For example if KOrganizer crashed you should install kdepim-dbg as well. If the program is not from an official KDE module and has no -dbg package, you can install the -dbgsym package from the repository listed on this Debugging Program Crashes page. * openSUSE - You should only install the -debuginfo packages, for example: kdepimlibs4-debuginfo. You can find these packages in KDE repositories. There is also a dedicated openSUSE debugging page. * Fedora - Fedora has its own document describing how to proceed. (A debuginfo repository has to be enabled.)
If your distribution doesn't have debugging-enabled packages for KDE, you'll have to compile KDE from sources:
* If you're using KDE 3, then at the configure stage, you should supply the parameter --enable-debug=full in order to build debug symbols in the resulting files. * If you're using KDE 4, then at the cmake stage, you should supply the parameter -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=debugfull. If you want to specify your own CXXFLAGS, then use -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=None CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS="-O0 -g". You can change the CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS as appropriate for your needs.
Then it's just make and make install as you're used to.  Crash!
Now it's time to crash your application. The KDE Crash Dialog should appear right after the crash, which shows the Backtrace tab. KDE Crash Dialog
Click that tab and wait for a minute. This process may take quite some memory, so things may go sluggish all of a sudden. But the result should look much better. For example:
Using host libthread_db library "/lib/libthread_db.so.1". [Thread debugging using libthread_db enabled] [New Thread -1232783168 (LWP 7604)] [KCrash handler]
- 6 0x0806be76 in TreeMapItem::parent (this=0x0)
- 7 0x08065fea in TreeMapItemList::compareItems (this=0xbfec04a8, item1=0x0,
item2=0x0) at /home/bram/KDE/kde3/kdeaddons/konq-plugins/fsview/treemap.cpp:720
- 8 0xb7281619 in QGList::operator== () from /usr/qt/3/lib/libqt-mt.so.3
- 9 0x0806d498 in QPtrList<TreeMapItem>::operator== (this=0xbfec04a8,
[email protected]) at /usr/qt/3/include/qptrlist.h:74
- 10 0x08062e18 in TreeMapWidget::mousePressEvent (this=0xbfec03ac,
e=0xbfebff1c) at /home/bram/KDE/kde3/kdeaddons/konq-plugins/fsview/treemap.cpp:1840
- 11 0xb7004a63 in QWidget::event () from /usr/qt/3/lib/libqt-mt.so.3
- 12 0xb6f6bca7 in QApplication::internalNotify ()
- 13 0xb6f6ca88 in QApplication::notify () from /usr/qt/3/lib/libqt-mt.so.3
- 14 0xb7725a84 in KApplication::notify (this=0xbfec055c, receiver=0xbfec03ac,
event=0xbfebff1c) at /home/bram/KDE/kde3/kdelibs/kdecore/kapplication.cpp:550
- 15 0xb6f0bfd2 in QETWidget::translateMouseEvent ()
- 16 0xb6f0b8b0 in QApplication::x11ProcessEvent ()
- 17 0xb6f1b761 in QEventLoop::processEvents () from /usr/qt/3/lib/libqt-mt.so.3
- 18 0xb6f82831 in QEventLoop::enterLoop () from /usr/qt/3/lib/libqt-mt.so.3
- 19 0xb6f826b6 in QEventLoop::exec () from /usr/qt/3/lib/libqt-mt.so.3
- 20 0xb6f6b72f in QApplication::exec () from /usr/qt/3/lib/libqt-mt.so.3
- 21 0x0805181e in main (argc=134673960, argv=0xffffffff)
This looks better, right? It shows memory addresses, the source files and line numbers and the parameters passed to functions. Which make it more helpful to the developer where to look for the problem.
Note noframe You need GDB installed to get the backtrace of a crash. Please read the next section to know what GDB is, and how to install it.
Obteniendo la pila de las últimas funciones ejecutadas con GDB
En algunos casos, no es posible crear la pila de las últimas funciones ejecutadas dentro del diálogo de aplicación caida del KDE. Esto puede ser porque una aplicacón entró en un bucle sin fin, o el diálogo de aplicación caída no aparece por algún motivo. Siempre puede intentar obtener la instantánea de donde aparece el fallo con gdb, el depurador GNU. GDB está disponible para instalarse en la inmensa mayoría de las distribuciones en su almacén de programas.
Invoking GDB differs from the situation. You can run an application from inside gdb, or attach gdb to an already running process. The latter may be useful when an application already has entered an infinite loop. But we will first start with running an application inside gdb. From the shell, run:
$ gdb someKDEapp
The GDB prompt will appear. Note that this does not start the application itself, you should run it by invoking the run command:
This will run the application like you are used to, and you can work with it like normal (it only consumes far more memory and may feel sluggish). Now it's time to reproduce your crash. When you succeed, the application just closes and you should return to your GDB prompt. Now it's time to run the 'backtrace' command:
Note noframe Some KDE applications (such as JuK and KTorrent) have special code to ensure that there is only one running instance of the application at a time. For these applications you should type in "run --nofork" at the (gdb) prompt instead of "run" because otherwise gdb will try to debug the wrong process. If you are unsure as to whether to use --nofork just try it. If the application says it's an unknown option you can remove --nofork.
(gdb) thread apply all backtrace
This should give a good backtrace which can be posted at the KDE Bugzilla.
In case you want to attach to an existing process, run the following command in the shell:
$ gdb someKDEapp pid
where pid is the process ID of the process you want to attach to. Once attached, and the process is in an infinite loop, after using the 'backtrace' command again a useful backtrace will appear. You can use 'continue' command to let the application run again and press Ctrl+C in gdb to be able to again enter commands.  Retrieving a backtrace with Valgrind
When it comes to crashes, Valgrind is also a useful tool to create a backtrace. It's not a substitution for GDB, but rather a supplement.
When you run an application in valgrind, every piece of memory read or written by the application is being checked. Valgrind will report erroneous memory operations in the standard output or in a log file. Since most crashes are due to an invalid memory read, valgrind can be useful to track down where the problem occurs.
Note noframe Valgrind consists of several tools in order to check or profile an application. For this article, we only use memcheck, the default tool when valgrind is being invoked.
Like GDB, Valgrind makes running an application much slower, while consuming a lot more resources.
Start the application within valgrind:
$ valgrind --log-file=someKDEapp someKDEapp
Now reproduce the crash. As soon as this happens, the application and valgrind will terminate. What's left is a file named someKDEapp.pid where pid is replaced by the process ID of the valgrind process. The file may list more errors than the one causing the crash. Here's the bit causing the crash which corresponds to the GDB backtrace above:
==23292== Invalid read of size 4 ==23292== at 0x806BD9E: TreeMapItem::parent() const (treemap.h:285) ==23292== by 0x8065FB9: TreeMapItemList::compareItems(void*, void*) (treemap.cpp:720) ==23292== by 0x50AC618: QGList::operator==(QGList const&) const (in /usr/qt/3/lib/libqt-mt.so.3.3.8) ==23292== by 0x806D3BF: QPtrList<TreeMapItem>::operator==(QPtrList<TreeMapItem> const&) const (qptrlist.h:74) ==23292== by 0x8062DE7: TreeMapWidget::mousePressEvent(QMouseEvent*) (treemap.cpp:1840) ==23292== by 0x4E2FA62: QWidget::event(QEvent*) (in /usr/qt/3/lib/libqt-mt.so.3.3.8) ==23292== by 0x4D96CA6: QApplication::internalNotify(QObject*, QEvent*) (in /usr/qt/3/lib/libqt-mt.so.3.3.8) ==23292== by 0x4D97A87: QApplication::notify(QObject*, QEvent*) (in /usr/qt/3/lib/libqt-mt.so.3.3.8) ==23292== by 0x4809AC3: KApplication::notify(QObject*, QEvent*) (kapplication.cpp:550) ==23292== by 0x4D36FD1: QETWidget::translateMouseEvent(_XEvent const*) (in /usr/qt/3/lib/libqt-mt.so.3.3.8) ==23292== by 0x4D368AF: QApplication::x11ProcessEvent(_XEvent*) (in /usr/qt/3/lib/libqt-mt.so.3.3.8) ==23292== by 0x4D46760: QEventLoop::processEvents(unsigned) (in /usr/qt/3/lib/libqt-mt.so.3.3.8) ==23292== Address 0x2C is not stack'd, malloc'd or (recently) free'd
But to be sure, just attach the whole log file to the crash report.