Difference between revisions of "Archive:Development/Tutorials/Git"

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This tutorial will show you the basics for [http://git-scm.com/ Git]. For more information, please consult for example the official [http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/gittutorial.html tutorial introduction to Git] or this [http://cheat.errtheblog.com/s/git excellent cheat sheet].
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This page is under construction today. Sorry for the inconvenience, it should be cleaner in a few hours (99% of the old content is [[/Basics here]] and [[/git-svn here]]). Want to help out? come to #sfsprint :)
  
  
== Setting up Git ==
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short intro here: kde is trying out
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[http://git-scm.com/ Git], many kde devs use it, here's some information, what might you want to read first, blah blah...
  
First, you should tell Git your name and email address. These information will be shown in the log and in commits. Also, you should allow color in Git. There are other color-related features, but this tutorial is just about basics.
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Pages:
 
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<pre>
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git config --global user.name "Your Name"
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git config --global user.email you@example.com
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git config --global color.ui true
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</pre>
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In case you experience problems with colors you should test adding the following to your ~/.bashrc. The 'R' is the important part here.
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<pre>
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# R needed for git colours
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export LESS="-RIM"
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</pre>
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== First steps with Git ==
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We will start with a new Git repository and add one file to it.
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<pre>
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git init
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Initialized empty Git repository in .git/
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> echo "Test content" > testfile
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</pre>
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Now we will check the status of the repository. Git will list one untracked file, that means the file has not yet been added to the repository.
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<pre>
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git status
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# On branch master
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#
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# Initial commit
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#
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# Untracked files:
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#  (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)
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#
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#      testfile
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nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track)
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</pre>
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In the next three commands the file 'testfile' will be added and commited. Then  Git will check the status again.
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<pre>
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git add testfile
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git commit -m "This is the first commit"
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Created initial commit 246d7aa: This is the first commit
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1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
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create mode 100644 testfile
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git status
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# On branch master
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nothing to commit (working directory clean)
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</pre>
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Ok, as you can see the file has been commited. Now let's see what we change the contents of the file:
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<pre>
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> echo "new content" > testfile
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git status
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# On branch master
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# Changed but not updated:
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#  (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed)
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#
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#      modified:  testfile
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#
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no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git commit -a -m "Second commit"
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Created commit 14a9802: Second commit
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1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)
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</pre>
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You see that Git noticed the changes in the file. <i>"git commit -a"</i> commits all changes in the repository. Note: This command does not add newly created files.
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== Branches and merging are cheap in Git ==
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<i>git branch</i> shows you the branches of the repository, the one with the '*' is the active one. So let us create a new branch called <i>"bugfix-branch"</i> and assume we want to fix a branch there. After this fix (in this case the new file) we will merge back all the hard work into the master branch.
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<pre>
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git branch
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* master
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git branch bugfix-branch
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git checkout bugfix-branch
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Switched to branch "bugfix-branch"
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git branch
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* bugfix-branch
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  master
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> echo "a second file" > newfile
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git commit -a
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# On branch bugfix-branch
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# Untracked files:
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#  (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)
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#
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#      newfile
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nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track)
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git add newfile
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git commit
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Created commit 3264357: This file is here for a demonstration of Gits branch- and merge feature
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1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
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create mode 100644 newfile
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</pre>
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Ok, the bug is fixed now. Next step: Checkout the master branch and merge the two branches:
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<pre>
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git checkout master
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Switched to branch "master"
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> ls
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testfile
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git merge bugfix-branch
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Updating 14a9802..3264357
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Fast forward
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newfile |    1 +
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1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
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create mode 100644 newfile
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> ls
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newfile  testfile
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</pre>
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If you would have edited "testfile" in the bugfix-branch, then git would automatically try to merge the contents of "testfile" in the bugfix-branch with the contents of "testfile" in the master branch. Sometimes this can cause a merge conflict. In that case you have to manually edit the "testfile" in the master branch, and afterwards you do a "git commit -a" to complete the merge. Git indicates the conflicting lines in the file itself.
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== Lets now have a look at the log of the testfile ==
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<pre>
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git log testfile
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commit 14a9802e249413003d1fa40002baa025aa54c75f
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Author: Carsten Niehaus <carsten@moinmoin.site>
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Date:  Fri Apr 18 18:07:18 2008 +0200
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    Second commit
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commit 246d7aad05139314e7ff62a5becb6c930f72fb8f
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Author: Carsten Niehaus <carsten@moinmoin.site>
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Date:  Fri Apr 18 18:06:33 2008 +0200
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    This is the first commit
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</pre>
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== Handling local changes ==
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git-svn cannot sync with SVN when you have local, uncommited changes. For that you are using <i>git stash</i>. That command move the local changes on a stack so that you can sync. After the sync you re-apply them to you Git tree and clear the stack. Very handy feature in many situations! Just do this:
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<pre>
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git stash
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git svn rebase
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git stash apply
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git stash clear
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</pre>
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If you have local changes which you would like to revert use the following command. It will revert all local, uncommited changes.
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<pre>
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git checkout -f
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</pre>
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ignore everything below this line!
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short intro here: kde is trying out git, many kde devs use it, here's some information, what might you want to read first, blah blah...
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Pages to be created:
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*[[/kde-qt|using kde-qt]]
 
*[[/kde-qt|using kde-qt]]
 
*[[/git-svn|using git-svn with kde]]
 
*[[/git-svn|using git-svn with kde]]
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*[[/Basics|Basic git commands]]
 
*[[/KdeOnGit|accessing kde projects on git]]
 
*[[/KdeOnGit|accessing kde projects on git]]
*[[/Basics|basic git commands]]
 
 
*[[/BestPractices|things to avoid / best practices]]
 
*[[/BestPractices|things to avoid / best practices]]
 
*[[/Recipes|useful recipes]]
 
*[[/Recipes|useful recipes]]
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if you want to learn more about git, see the following resurces:
 
if you want to learn more about git, see the following resurces:
*[http://live.gnome.org/GitForGnomeDevelopers| git for gnome developers]
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*[http://live.gnome.org/GitForGnomeDevelopers| git for gnome developers]
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*[http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/gittutorial.html the official tutorial introduction to Git]
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*[http://cheat.errtheblog.com/s/git git cheat sheet]

Revision as of 00:18, 2 November 2009

This page is under construction today. Sorry for the inconvenience, it should be cleaner in a few hours (99% of the old content is /Basics here and /git-svn here). Want to help out? come to #sfsprint :)


short intro here: kde is trying out Git, many kde devs use it, here's some information, what might you want to read first, blah blah...

Pages:

if you want to learn more about git, see the following resurces:


Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 4.0 unless otherwise noted.