Getting Started/Build/KDE4 (da)

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Contents

Abstrakt

Denne tutorial viser en måde at få KDE fra trunk til at køre på Linux/BSD systemer. Gennem hele denne tutorial bruges bash shell'en. Hvis du er interesseret i at bygge KDE på andre systemer, f.eks Solaris, MacOS eller Microsoft Windows, så besøg Byg siden og se linksne i bunden til de respektive operativ systemer.

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Warning
Forvent en højere risiko for bygningsfejl på mandage, hvor kritiske ændringer bliver implementeret. Dashboardet reportere uventede brud. Du er meget velkommen til at rette de fejlende moduler.


Nødvendigt software

Det følgende skal være installeret før du kan gennemføre denne tutorial:

  • gcc og g++ fra gcc projektet, anbefales version 4.1 ellere højere
  • svn, subversion revisions kontrol klienten
  • pkg-config
  • udviklings biblioteker (development libraries) og headers til X11, OpenGL (mesa-common-dev og libglu1-mesa-dev), libjpeg, libpng, libungif, libclucene, librdf, libxml2 og libxslt
  • makeobj scriptet, som er en del af kdesdk. Du kan installere deb sin en del af kdesdk (kdesdk-scripts på Debian) eller lignende pakke, eller bare hente den selv fra WebSVN
  • shared-mime-info pakken, som er den freedesktop MIME standard KDE bruger nu
  • boost, skal bruges af kdebase; efter kompilering og/eller installering af boost, for at gøre cmake forberedt på dens placering (FindBoost), tilføj boost directory (den som indeholder include subdirectory) til CMAKE_INCLUDE_PATH eller sæt en miljøvariabel kaldet BOOST_ROOT som peger på boost directory.

Det anbefales desuden at du har følgende installeret:

  • bash

Kubuntu

På Kubuntu 7.04 (Feisty) kan bygningsafhængighederne du behøver installeres med:

sudo aptitude install build-essential cdbs debhelper cmake \
libxml2-dev libxslt1-dev libbz2-dev libclucene-dev librdf-dev \
shared-mime-info libgl1-mesa-dev libglu1-mesa-dev mesa-common-dev \
libxext-dev libjpeg-dev libpng-dev subversion libsm-dev libxinerama-dev \
libxrender-dev libfontconfig-dev libboost-dev libxcursor-dev doxygen \
libungif4-dev libdbus-1-dev

Du kan hoppe over den manuelle installation af Qt 4.3, CMake 2.4.6 og DBus ved at installere de følgende pakker (og deres afhængigheder). Notér venligst: Dette vil ikke virke for Qt til KDE4 efter Alpha 1 (Kubuntu feisty indeholder Qt4.3beta, ikke Qt4.3 final som er nødvendig. Hop videre til at bygge Qt fra svn længere nede):

sudo aptitude install libqt4-dev-kdecopy libdbus-1-dev cmake

Og for fuldt funktionelt apidox framework skal du også bruge:

sudo aptitude install graphviz

openSUSE

I openSUSE 10.2 og nyere, kan du installere pakker ved at bruge Zypper:

sudo zypper install <pakkenavn>

I ældre versioner af SUSE, kan du bruge YaST:

su
yast -i <pakkenavn>

Nødvendige pakker

Pakkerne du skal installere er:

xorg-x11-devel
libxml2-devel 
kdesdk3 
clucene-core-devel 
boost-devel
libjpeg-devel 
liblrdf-devel 
libpng-devel 
libxslt-devel 
libredland-devel
Mesa-devel 
giflib-devel 
subversion 
gcc 
gcc-c++
gmp-devel (needed to build kdesupport)
xine-devel
libgpgme-devel (needed to build kdepimlibs)

Frivillige pakker

Du kan hoppe over den manuelle installation af Qt 4.3, CMake 2.4.6 og DBus ved at tilføje openSUSE Build Service KDE4 arkiv til dine installationskilder.

På openSUSE 10.2 og nyere, gør således:

sudo zypper service-add http://software.opensuse.org/download/KDE:/KDE4/openSUSE_10.2 KDE4-102

I ældre versioner af SUSE Linux, gør således:

su
installation_sources -a http://software.opensuse.org/download/KDE:/KDE4/[DIN SUSE LINUX VERSION]

Installer nu de følgende pakker (og deres afhængigheder):

cmake
dbus-1-devel
libqt4-devel

Og for fuldt funktionelt apidox framework skal du også bruge:

graphviz

CMake binære pakker til openSUSE er tilgængelige fra openSUSE build service.

Gentoo

Du kan bruge de mest stabile ebuildsm, bare husk at synkronisere din portage før du begynder.

Disse skal være unmasked og/eller holdt i en lavere version for at fortsætte.

# echo 'x11-libs/qt' >> /etc/portage/package.keywords
# echo 'dev-util/cmake' >> /etc/portage/package.keywords
# echo 'dev-cpp/clucene' >> /etc/portage/package.keywords
# echo '>dev-cpp/clucene-0.9.16a' >> /etc/portage/package.mask

Disse pakker er du nødt til at installere, nogen er måske allerede installeret, men så springer du dem bare over.

$ emerge -avu ebuild/name
sys-devel/gcc
dev-util/subversion
dev-util/pkgconfig
x11-base/xorg-x11
media-libs/glut
media-libs/mesa
media-libs/jpeg
media-libs/libpng
media-libs/giflib
dev-cpp/clucene
dev-util/cppunit
media-libs/liblrdf
dev-libs/libxml2
dev-libs/libxslt
x11-misc/shared-mime-info
kde-base/kdesdk-scripts
dev-libs/boost
x11-libs/qt
dev-util/cmake
sys-apps/dbus
dev-libs/redland

Du vil starte med at kompilere i hånden fra Strigi sekionen.

Held og lykke!

Lav en brugerkonto til KDE4 udvikling

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Note
Some people like to have a separate user account for KDE 4 (for instance an old bug deleted files by mistake), and the instructions below were written with that approach.

However it is much more efficient to do everything with a single user account, see Increased Productivity in KDE4 with Scripts for more details.

You can still follow the instructions below, but don't put the environment variables in your .bashrc, put them in a separate file that you source to switch to the KDE 4 environment.

Option 1: Command Line

useradd -m kde-devel
passwd kde-devel

Option 2: Using KControl

Instead of using the commands above, you can also use the User module in the KDE Control Center if you already have KDE3 installed.

Setting up the environment

Copy the ~/.bashrc from your normal user account to the new kde-devel account. Next, copy and paste the contents of the example .bashrc into ~kde-devel/.bashrc. Be sure to comment out the line alias make=makeobj if you do not have the makeobj command available. You will probably also want to modify the path to make sure it doesn't include your kde3 paths. To make it run, you have to open a new bash or to execute

source ~/.bashrc

This will provide access to commands such as cmakekde that are used in this tutorial as well as ensure that the proper paths are in place for Qt, KDE and CMake binaries.

For more information, please read the Getting Started/Increased Productivity in KDE4 with Scripts tutorial.

Switching to the New User

Switch to the user kde-devel: (don't forget the dash)

su - kde-devel

The rest of this tutorial assumes you are running as the kde-devel user.

The development user's shell

On some systems a new user is configured by default to use /bin/sh. If this is not the case on your system, you can skip this section. Using /bin/sh can be very inconvenient to work with and you may want to change it to /bin/bash or another shell.

Option 1: As the kde-devel user

If you don't have root privileges and your system supports the changing of your own shell with the chsh application, then you could try to change your shell to /bin/bash by using:

chsh -s /bin/bash kde-devel

Option 2: As the root user

If your system comes with the usermod application you can run the following command as root: usermod -s /bin/bash kde-devel.

Another option is to use the vipw application as root to safely edit your /etc/passwd. Locate 'kde-devel' in the the file. Change '/bin/sh' at the end of the line to read '/bin/bash', save your changes and exit.

The new shell will be started automatically when you log in as the kde-devel user again.

D-Bus

Det er bekræftet at QtDBus og KDE virker med D-Bus version 0.62, samt med 0.92 og opefter. Versionerne 0.60 og 0.61 virker muligvis også, men er ikke testet. Dog virker version 0.90 og 0.91 ikke. Vi anbefaler at bruge udgivelsesversioner højere end 1.0 (mindst 0.94), så overvej at opgradere hvis du ikke har gjort det.

Du kan springe dette trin over hvis du har en ny version af D-Bus, eller ikke ønsker at opgradere.

Før du bruger den følgende "opskrift", tjek da venligst at X11 headers og libraries er installeret. configure-programmet fortæller dig dette på linje 5:

Building X11 code:        yes

Opskriften

Ktip.png
 
Tip
Tjek venligst at du har opsat dit miljø korrekt som beskrevet for oven. Dette er nødvendigt for at funktionerne cs og cb virker.


cs # 'cs' er en bash-funktion, klik her for at lære mere 
wget http://dbus.freedesktop.org/releases/dbus/dbus-1.0.2.tar.gz
tar -xvzf dbus-1.0.2.tar.gz
cd dbus-1.0.2/
./configure --prefix=$DBUSDIR --localstatedir=/var
make
make install
dbus-uuidgen --ensure

Hvad sker der?

Efter du skifter til kildebiblioteket (linje 1), bliver kildekoden til D-Bus downloadet fra freedesktop.org (linje 2) og udpakket (linje 3). Når du er inde i dit nye D-Bus bibliotek (linje 4), bliver kildekoden konfigureret med det medfølgende configure-program (linje 5). Efter kompileringen (linje 6) og installationen (linje 7) af D-Bus, bruger vi programmet dbus-uuidgen til at generere en identifikationsfil, der tillader programmet at starte op sammen med din desktop-session (linje 8).

Bemærk venligst at du skal have skriveadgang til /var for at køre de to sidste kommandoer. Hvis dit system ikke bruger sudo, kan du bruge su-kommandoen i stedet, f.eks. su -c "make install".

Fejl?

Hvis du får fejlen makeobj: command not found, mangler dit system med stor sandsynlighed kommandoen makeobj.

CMake

Skip this if you have CMake >=2.4.5 installed. You should be able to directly use the binary packages available on the CMake site. There are also distribution specific packages available.

The Recipe

cs # 'cs' is a bash function, click Here to learn more 
wget http://www.cmake.org/files/v2.4/cmake-2.4.6.tar.gz
tar -zxf cmake-2.4.6.tar.gz
mkdir cmake-build
cd cmake-build 
../cmake-2.4.6/bootstrap
make
sudo make install

What's Happening

First, we go back to the kde-devel user's source directory (line 1), get the CMake sources (line 2) and unpack them (line 3). We create a directory to build CMake in (line 4) and go into it (line 5). We then run the CMake bootstrap script to set up the CMake build (line 6), then make (line 7) and install it (line 8) using the root user.

If your system does not have the sudo command, you can instead do su -c "make install".

Qt

Next we need to get the Qt4 that is in KDE's source repository. KDE is guaranteed to build against any Qt 4.3. Qt 4.2 and earlier are not supported and will not work. Qt 4.3 has been released only recently, so your distribution probably doesn't have packages for it yet (known exceptions: Kubuntu(feisty:Qt4.3 beta), openSUSE, Fedora, Gentoo, Debian experimental). You should use the copy in the KDE Subversion servers.

The Recipe

cd
svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/qt-copy
cd qt-copy
./apply_patches
./configure -qt-gif -no-exceptions -debug -fast \
 -prefix $QTDIR -qdbus -pch -nomake examples \
 -nomake demos
make -j2
# do copy files if the target doesnt match current dir,
# clear obj files to save disk space otherwise
if [ $QTDIR = `pwd` ]; then \
find . -name '*.o' -exec rm {} \; ; \
else make install; fi;

What's Happening

We switch back to the kde-devel user's home directory (line 1) and download the source code using subversion (svn) from KDE's repository (line 2). After changing into the resulting qt-copy directory (line 3), we run a script that manages the patches that come with qt-copy (line 4).

Once the patches have been applied, we then set up the build using the configure script (line 5-7). The various command line options used are explained in the qt-copy/README.qt-copy file. Finally, we build the minimal requirements for KDE (line 8) and install (line 9-10) Qt. If you want all the example and demo applications, you can either build them individually or simply do a make from the qt-copy directory.

Note that the installation does not require root as it installs Qt locally into $QTDIR. Anyway, installation is only needed if $QTDIR differs from $HOME/qt-copy, which is not the case if you have exactly followed the instructions.

Troubleshooting

If you get "error: X11/Xlib.h: No such file or directory", install the devel package of xorg (the actual name may vary between operating systems, for example it is xorg-dev on Ubuntu based systems such as Kubuntu).

If you get an error in the configure step about missing defines, check the value of $QMAKESPEC. Some distributions set this to point directly to the system-installed Qt. If unset QMAKESPEC solves the problem, you probably want to add it to the ~/.bashrc script.

If you get an error ".pch/debug-shared/QtCore", this is because Qt-4.3 enables precompiled headers if your gcc supports it, but for some reason it doesn't work for you. If you use distcc, configure qt with -no-pch. If you use icecream, update to the latest icecream from svn trunk.

Try running any Qt program, like assistant. Note: You may need to run xhost +local:kde-devel as your regular kde3 user to run this application. If it crashes in QSpanData::adjustSpanMethods, then your problem is the oxygen style. Try removing lib/kde4/plugins/styles/kstyle-oxygen.so and lib/kde4/plugins/styles/oxygen.so if they exist in the KDE install prefix.

kdesupport

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Warning
If you have jumped to this section without reading Setting Up The Environment, the recipes provided will not work. The recipes are not in error; cs and cb are not typos. Your environment needs to be set up correctly for these instructions to work for you.


There are several libraries that KDE applications rely on in the kdesupport module. This includes Strigi and Soprano for file metadata and search, eigen for visual effects in applications such as Kalzium, taglib for music players and qca for some cryptographic needs.

Strigi itself has a few dependencies as well: you will need the libraries and headers for libz, libbz2, openssl (libcrypto or libssl), libclucene (=0.9.16; version 0.9.17 does not work), and either libxml2 or libexpat.

The Recipe

cs # cs is not a typo
svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/kdesupport/
cd kdesupport
cmakekde

What's Happening

We change to the base source directory (line 1). We download the sources in kdesupport using subversion (line 2), go into the new ~/src/kdesupport directory (line 3), and commence the build (line 4). This will leave us in the kdesupport build directory after the build is completed.

TroubleShooting

If you get

CMake Error: This project requires some variables to be set,
and cmake can not find them.
Please set the following variables:
LIBXML2_INCLUDE_DIR (ADVANCED)

you should install the development package for libxml2.

If you get

CMake Error: Could NOT find REDLAND

then you need librdf from the Redland. If your distribution does not provide the librdf package, you can download the source there: http://download.librdf.org/source/ and build it. (Gentoo users: The ebuild for librdf is named dev-libs/redland)

kdelibs

With Qt4, Strigi, and Soprano built, we can now move on to building KDE's base libraries. If you use the aforementioned .bashrc this is where those new functions come in handy.

The Recipe

cd $KDE_SRC
mkdir KDE && cd KDE
svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdelibs
cd kdelibs
cmakekde

What's Happening

We change to the base source directory (line 1) then make and go into the KDE directory (line 2). We download the sources for kdelibs using subversion (line 3), go into the new ~/src/KDE/kdelibs directory (line 4), and commence the build (line 5). This will leave us in the kdelibs build directory after the build is completed.

Ktip.png
 
Tip
There might be missing dependencies on your system! They are easily overlooked in the output of cmakekde. You might want to do a cmake $KDE_SRC/KDE/MODULE_NAME prior to compiling any kde modules (like kdelibs, kdepimlibs etc.)


Additional KDE-specific CMake modules

There are additional CMake modules in kdelibs/cmake/modules/ that are necessary for building KDE4 applications. These will be installed for you when kdelibs itself is installed.

Troubleshooting

If you have problems compiling kdelibs, first make sure the software in the Required Software section above is installed and works. Other possible hints include:

  • If the cmakekde command fails stating that CMake requires an out of source build directory, remove ~/src/KDE/kdelibs/CMakeCache.txt, and try again.

If cmakekde still gives the same error then try this

cd
cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=$KDEDIR \
-DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=debugfull \
-DKDE4_BUILD_TESTS=ON \
~/src/KDE/kdelibs
make
make install
  • If you received an error stating "Please create a separate build directory and run 'cmake path_to_kdelibs [options]' there.", then you need to change to your build directory before running cmakekde. (e.g cs KDE/kdelibs && cb && cmakekde)
  • If Qt wasn't found or the wrong version of Qt was found, make sure that the qmake from the Qt you need is the first qmake in the path.
  • If the problems persist, try the CMake make-option --keep-going.
  • Here you need the libungif library, otherwise you will get an error message like "Could NOT find GIF".
  • Qt-4.3 upgrade: if you get a link error in kjsembed talking about QScriptEngine, edit CMakeCache.txt in kdelibs and remove the lines that talk about QT_QTUITOOLS_LIBRARY, then type make again (that static library has a new dependency, and the cmake code that adds it needs to run).
  • if you get
    CMake Error: KDE Requires Qt to be built with SSL support
    , install openssl-devel, and re-compile QT.
  • if you get
    kdelibs/kimgio/ico.cpp:188: undefined reference to `QImage::jumpTable()'
    it means you compiled QT without QT3 support(no, linking to a true QT3 install won't work)

kdepimlibs

After kdelibs, but before kdebase, you need to build and install kdepimlibs.

The Recipe

cs KDE # cs is not a typo
svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdepimlibs
cd kdepimlibs
cmakekde

What's Happening

We go into the KDE source directory (line 1), download the source code for kdepimlibs using subversion (line 2) and then go into the new ~/src/KDE/kdepimlibs directory (line 3). We then commence the build (line 4). This will leave us in the kdepimlibs build directory after the build is completed.

kdebase

You may need kdebase for some kioslaves.

cs KDE # cs is not a typo
svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdebase
cd kdebase
cmakekde

Troubleshooting

If you have troubles compiling kdebase:

  • Make sure you have the libxss headers installed. (Usually you got undefined references on xscreensaver objects if you haven't those headers)
  • which meinproc4 has to deliver /home/kde-devel/kde/bin/meinproc4
  • if cmakekde can not find the path of kdepimlibs, edit the file $KDE_BUILD/KDE/kdebase/CMakeCache.txt and manually set KDEPIMLIBS_INCLUDE_DIR:PATH=$KDE_BUILD/kdepimlibs
  • if you get an error saying "Please set the following variables: X11_XTest_LIB (ADVANCED)", install the devel package of Xtst. On some systems, this is packaged separately from xext and called x11proto-xext-dev or libxtst-dev. You may also need to remove the CMakeCache.txt file in the build dir after installing the package.
  • the same for "X11_Xinerama_LIB (ADVANCED)" where you will need the devel package for xinerama.
  • if you get the error "Please set the following variables: FONTCONFIG_INCLUDE_DIR, FONTCONFIG_LIBRARIES (ADVANCED)", then you need to install the libfontconfig headers
  • if you get the error "CMake Error: This project requires some variables to be set, and cmake can not find them. Please set the following variables: KMETADATA_LIBRARIES", you need to install soprano from kdesupport and to rebuild kdelibs
  • if you get the error "‘XserverRegion’ does not name a type" make sure you have libxcomposite headers installed (libxcomposite-dev in ubuntu)

Generating local API documentation

Although the API documentation for KDE is available online at api.kde.org, it is sometimes useful to have it on your own disk, for example when you want to use KDevelop for browsing the documentation or when you are not able to be online all the time.

Be aware that generating the API documentation can take several hours and takes almost half a gigabyte of diskspace. The generation is handled by a script in kdelibs/doc/api, you need doxygen to be able to run it.

To build the API documentation for kdelibs, type the following:

cs KDE/kdelibs # cs is not a typo
$KDE_SRC/KDE/kdelibs/doc/api/doxygen.sh \
--doxdatadir=$KDE_SRC/KDE/kdelibs/doc/common .

Repeat for other modules as desired.

cd <module home>
$KDE_SRC/KDE/kdelibs/doc/api/doxygen.sh \
--doxdatadir=$KDE_SRC/KDE/kdelibs/doc/common .

General troubleshooting

What can happen over time, after some svn up commands, is that some of the tools used in the KDE build chain change their output format. For example, kcfg files are read by kconfig_compiler to produce configuration dialogs. CMake cannot detect those changes, and the compilation might fail. A workaround is to always force a re-generation of all such files:

find $KDE_SRC/kde/kdebase -name "*.kcfg" | xargs touch

The same applies to ui files as produced by Qt designer.

Success!

You are now ready to start building other svn modules in the same fashion as you built kdebase, running and testing KDE4 or writing your own patches and applications.

See the Set up KDE 4 for development tutorial for how to start KDE 4 applications and how to use KDevelop to work on them.


This page was last modified on 14 July 2012, at 08:56. This page has been accessed 9,545 times. Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 3.0 as well as the GNU Free Documentation License 1.2.
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