Difference between revisions of "Policies/Kdepim Coding Style"

Jump to: navigation, search
(no "one line" if-statement)
(The specification rules of coding style for kdepim and akonadi)
 
(213 intermediate revisions by one user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
{{Construction}}
 
 
 
== Purpose of this document ==
 
== Purpose of this document ==
  
This document describes the recommended coding style for kdepim. Nobody is
+
This document describes the recommended coding style for kdepim and akonadi. Nobody is
 
forced to use this style, but to have consistent formatting of the source code
 
forced to use this style, but to have consistent formatting of the source code
 
files it is strongly recommended to make use of it.
 
files it is strongly recommended to make use of it.
  
''In short: Kdepim coding style follows the''
+
''In short: Kdepim and akonadi coding style follows the''
 
[http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style Kdelibs coding style].
 
[http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style Kdelibs coding style].
  
== The rules for Kdepim ==
+
== Why is coding Style usefull? ==
  
*don't use any <TAB>s
+
Let us make a comparision with real life.
 +
To make an addition, one can do:
 +
 
 +
{{Output| 1=123
 +
+      456
 +
  ==========
 +
    =      579
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
But we have learned at the primary to write:
 +
 
 +
{{Output| 1=Addition
 +
  123
 +
+456
 +
====
 +
=579
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Which is much more readable, easy to control (or debug).
 +
 
 +
This is Coding Style: not necessary but very usefull, and pretty to read.
 +
 
 +
== What do we need? ==
 +
 
 +
'''We need at least:'''
 +
*a '''specification''' (a set of rules) for the coding style of the sources
 +
*some tools to '''check the sources''' against the specification
 +
*some tools to '''change the sources'''
 +
 
 +
[http://astyle.sourceforge.net/ astyle] is a pretty tool to make such changes. But astyle doesn't implement (yet) all the specification rules.
 +
 
 +
You can find below some awk-scripts which help us to check all the rules.
 +
 
 +
You can find below some awk-scripts which help us to make most of the changes.
 +
The last part must be done manually.
 +
 
 +
== The specification rules of coding style for kdepim and akonadi ==
 +
 
 +
*Identation with four spaces, don't use any <TAB>s
 
*Trim the lines
 
*Trim the lines
*Only single empty lines should be used
+
*Only single empty lines
 
*The first line, the last line(s) may not be empty
 
*The first line, the last line(s) may not be empty
*no "one line" if-statement
+
*Only one statement per line
 +
*Variable declaration
 +
*Only one declaration per line
 +
*Use a space after each keyword, but not after a cast
 +
*Use a space after the name of the class
 +
*include directive
 +
*Place '''*''' and '''&''' near the variable
 +
*Use '''namespace foo {''' in the same line
 +
*Each member initialization of a method in a separate line
 +
*Surround all operators with spaces
 +
*'''switch''' rules
 +
*'''try-catch''' rules
 +
*'''if''', '''for''', '''while''' and similar macros rules
 +
*'''typedef''' statement over more lines
 +
*Don't use '''&,''' without a variable
 +
*Don't use untyped '''enum'''
 +
*Don't use '''enum''' with empty member
 +
*No ''';''' after some macros
 +
*No "one line" '''if''' '''for''' '''while''' statement
 +
*No code after '''{'''
 +
*No code before '''}'' (but else)
 +
*No header and body code in the same line, even empty body
 +
*No space between some keywords
 +
*No space around the index of an array
 +
*No space around an expression surrounded with braces
 +
*No space before ''':''' in a case statement
 +
*No space before ''';''' at the end of statement
  
 
== Migration ==
 
== Migration ==
Line 23: Line 85:
 
be reviewed to follow the coding style.  This will be done over a long time,
 
be reviewed to follow the coding style.  This will be done over a long time,
 
directory after directory, for each of the
 
directory after directory, for each of the
rules defined above.  For each rule, one can find one or two script(s).   
+
rules defined above.  For each rule, one can find one or two script(s).
 +
 
 +
The main part of the changes can be done with astyle:
 +
http://astyle.sourceforge.net/
 +
 
 +
The results can be seen [[here]].
 +
 
 +
== Two scripts '''to check all the rules''' and '''to make the all the changes''' ==
 +
 
 +
Most of the rules can be check with the scripts below.
 +
For some of the rules, we don't have a script to change the sources. It is better to make first a check for such a rule, make the modification(s) to suscript the rule(s) before using the change-script(s).
 +
 
 +
If one wants all-in-one scripts, please use:
 +
*All-Check.sh
 +
*Change-All.sh
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:ALL-Coding-Style.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
== The scripts '''to check''' and '''to make the changes''' ==
 +
 
 +
The first script is '''to check''' a single file or a complete directory for all .h and
 +
.cpp files.
 +
 
 +
If present, the second script '''makes the changes''' for a single file or a complete
 +
directory for all .h and .cpp filesFor some complicated situations, the
 +
script makes no change.
 +
 
 +
One can use the scripts for own work.It is recommanded to use them in this order.
 +
 
 +
=== Don't test all directories ===
 +
 
 +
If a '''.no_coding_style''' file is present on a directory, the test will not be done.
 +
 
 +
If a '''.no_recursion''' file is present on a directory, we do not explore the subdirectory(ies)
 +
 
 +
=== Identation with four spaces, don't use any <TAB>s ===
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-Tabs.sh
 +
*The changes are well done with
 +
{{Output| 1=astyle --indent=spaces
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:Tabs.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 +
{{Output|1=check the file ktnefparser.cpp
 +
308: Tab at 16:  stream_ >> i;              // i <- attribute type & name
 +
311: Tab at 16:  stream_ >> i;              // i <- data length
 +
326: Tab at 22:  case attATTACHMENT:        // try to get attachment info
 +
367: Tab at 16:  stream_ >> u;      // u <- checksum
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
This shows:
 +
* the name of the file which is under test.
 +
* the line number, the position found and the line itself.
 +
 
 +
=== Trim the lines ===
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-Trim.sh
 +
*The changes are well done with:
 +
{{Output| 1=astyle --indent=spaces
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:Trim.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 +
{{Output|1=check the file trim.cpp
 +
51: Space(s) at end of line (28):  QVariant m_matchData;
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
This shows:
 +
* the name of the file which is under test.
 +
* the line number, the position found and the line itself.
 +
 
 +
=== Only single empty lines ===
 +
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Whitespace
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-Twice.sh
 +
*coding-style-change-Twice.sh
 +
* astyle cannot (yet) do it
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:Twice.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 +
{{Output|1=check the file enclosure.cpp
 +
25: next empty line found
 +
26: next empty line found
 +
30: next empty line found
 +
}}
 +
   
 +
This shows:
 +
* the name of the file which is under test.
 +
* the line numbers.
 +
 
 +
The '''change''' script:
 +
*removes all the next empty line(s).
 +
 
 +
=== First line, last line(s) may not be empty ===
 +
 
 +
Some of the sources have a first empty lines, some have one or more empty last line(s).
 +
*coding-style-check-First-Last.sh
 +
*coding-style-change-First-Last.sh
 +
*astyle cannot (yet) do it
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:First.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 +
{{Output|1=check the file trim.cpp
 +
The first line is empty
 +
The last line is empty}}
 +
   
 +
The '''change''' script:
 +
*removes the first line if empty, all the last empty line(s).
 +
 
 +
=== Only one statement per line ===
 +
 
 +
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
 +
 
 +
=== Variable declaration ===
 +
 
 +
We follow the kdelibs rule: [[http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Variable_declaration]]
 +
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
 +
 
 +
=== Only one declaration per line ===
 +
 
 +
We follow the kdelibs rule: [[http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Variable_declaration]]
 +
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
 +
 
 +
=== Use one space after each keyword, but not after a cast ===
 +
 
 +
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Whitespace
 +
 
 +
For most of the keywords, it is not necessary to make a test. Because the sources have been already compiled. For example this code never appear in a compiled source:
 +
{{Output|1=intmyVariableAa;
 +
floatmyVariableAb;}}
 +
 
 +
Some of the keywords are alone in the statement, such as '''break''' and '''continue'''. No test is necessary.
 +
 
 +
The only tests we have to do are the ones where a keyword is (or can be) followed
 +
by a sign '''( { [ :'''
 +
 
 +
These are:
 +
'''alignas decltype alignof noexcept typeid asm static_assert switch if catch while for sizeof new Q_FOREACH do try enum union Q_FOREVER bool char char16_t char32_t double float int long wchar_t signed unsigned short'''
 +
 
 +
For only '''one''' keyword:
 +
*coding-style-check-SpaceAfterKeyword.sh
 +
*coding-style-change-SpaceAfterKeyword.sh
 +
 
 +
 
 +
For '''all''' keywords above:
 +
*coding-style-check-SpaceAfter.sh
 +
*coding-style-change-SpaceAfter.sh
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== Use a space after the name of the class ===
 +
 
 +
We prefer having a space before the keyword public at the definition of a new class:
 +
{{Output|1=class DbException : public Akonadi::Exception
 +
{
 +
  ...
 +
};}}
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-Public.sh
 +
*coding-style-change-Public.sh
 +
*astyle cannot (yet) do it
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:Public.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:SpaceAfter.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 +
{{Output|1=check the file contactstreemodel.cpp
 +
98:  if( at 10:          if(contact.realName().isEmpty()) {
 +
99:  if( at 12:            if(contact.preferredEmail().isEmpty()) {
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
The '''change''' script:
 +
*puts a space after the keyword.
 +
 
 +
=== #include directive ===
 +
 
 +
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Qt_Includes
 +
 
 +
We prefer no space at the beginning of the directive. Some (not many) files need to be corrected to unify to all the other files.
 +
 
 +
{{Output|1=// some files use this
 +
# include <A/b>
 +
 
 +
// we prefer, to unify the coding style
 +
#include <A/b>}}
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-Space-Include.sh
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:Space-Include.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
=== Place '''*''' and '''&''' near the variable ===
 +
 
 +
The declaration S *D; declares D as a pointer to the type determined by decl-specifier-seq S.
 +
 
 +
The most compilers do not make any difference for such lines of code:
 +
 
 +
{{Output|1=int *a;
 +
int* b;
 +
int * c
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
We prefer the first one, without a space beetwen the star and the name of the variable:
 +
 
 +
{{Output|1=int *a;
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
The same rule may be use for:
 +
 
 +
{{Output|1=myFunction(int &a, int& b, int & c)
 +
{
 +
    // some lines
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
We prefer:
 +
{{Output|1=myFunction(int &a, int &b, int &c)
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
The awk-script checks also the occurences of:
 +
* '''&,'''
 +
* '''& >'''
 +
* '''* >'''
 +
* '''( )''' and '''(  )''' ''empty function call''
 +
 
 +
* '''enum {''' ''untyped enum''
 +
 
 +
Not all the ouputs are real errors. Some codings might be correct.
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-NO-Space.sh
 +
*using astyle to make the changes:
 +
{{Output| 1=astyle --reference=name --align-pointer=name
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Some lines with "type & name..." must be manually corrected.
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:NO-Space.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
The script gives informations about the found line(s).
 +
 
 +
=== Use '''namespace foo {''' in the same line ===
 +
 
 +
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
 +
 
 +
=== Each member initialization of a method in separate line ===
 +
 
 +
This example shows the indentation we prefer:
 +
 
 +
{{Output|1=class myClass {
 +
    // some lines
 +
public:
 +
    myClass(int r, int b, int i, int j)
 +
        : r(0)
 +
        , b(i)
 +
        , i(5)
 +
        , j(13)
 +
{
 +
    // more lines
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-Default-1.sh
 +
*coding-style-check-Default-2.sh
 +
*coding-style-change-Default-1.sh
 +
*coding-style-change-Default-2.sh
 +
*astyle cannot (yet) do it
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:Default.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
=== Surround all operators with spaces ===
 +
 
 +
This is well done with astyle:
 +
{{Output| 1=astyle --pad-oper
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
=== '''switch''' rules ===
 +
 
 +
This example shows the indentation we prefer:
 +
 
 +
{{Output|1=switch (a) {
 +
case ''one'':
 +
    // some lines
 +
    break;
 +
case ''two'': {
 +
    // some lines
 +
    break;
 +
}
 +
default:
 +
    // some lines
 +
    break;
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-Switch.sh
 +
*astyle
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:Switch.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
=== '''try-catch''' rules ===
 +
 
 +
This example shows the indentation we prefer:
 +
 
 +
{{Output|1=try {
 +
    // some lines
 +
} catch (...) {
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-Try.sh
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:Try.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
=== '''if''', '''for''', '''while''' (and similar macros) rules ===
 +
 
 +
Even for block with only one statement, we prefer to use braces such as:
 +
 
 +
{{Output|1=if (''condition'') {
 +
    ''statement;''
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
This should be used with the keywords '''if''', '''for''', '''while''' and similar macros.
 +
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 +
 
 +
{{Output|1=check the file test-if.cpp
 +
62: if without { at end of line:    if ( collection.cachePolicyLocalParts() )
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-If.sh
 +
*astyle
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:If.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
But we get some false alarm with statement over more than one line:
 +
 
 +
{{Output|1=if (''condition_1''
 +
    && ''condition_2'') {
 +
    ''statement;''
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
=== '''typedef''' statement over more lines ===
 +
 
 +
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
 +
 
 +
=== Don't use '''&''', without a variable ===
 +
 
 +
=== Don't use untyped '''enum''' ===
 +
 
 +
Instead of having an untyped enum such as:
 +
{{Output|1=  enum {
 +
    aElement= 123
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
we prefer a #define directive:
 +
{{Output|1=#define aElement 123
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:Enum.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
=== Don't use '''enum''' with empty member ===
 +
 
 +
The most compilers do not complain such a code:
 +
 
 +
{{Output|1=  enum mytype {
 +
    aElement,
 +
    bElement,
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
The last element is empty.
 +
We prefer a "pedantic" code such as:
 +
 
 +
{{Output|1=  enum mytype {
 +
    aElement,
 +
    bElement
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-Enum-Pedantic.sh
 +
 
 +
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 +
{{Output|1=check the file enum-example.cpp
 +
enum with ,} found at
 +
3->    bElement,
 +
4->  }
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:Enum-Pedantic.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
=== No ''';''' after some macros ===
 +
 
 +
Looking over the git-history, one can find some "pedantic" changes.
 +
These are changes to make a better code. The most of them are at the use of macro, where it is not necessary to have a ''';''' at the end ofthe command.
 +
The script make a check over all these:
 +
'''AKTEST_MAIN;MAKE_CMD_ROW;Q_DECLARE_FLAGS;Q_PRIVATE_SLOT;Q_DECLARE_METATYPE;Q_DECLARE_OPERATORS_FOR_FLAGS;Q_DE
 +
CLARE_PRIVATE;Q_DECLARE_PUBLIC;Q_DISABLE_COPY;K_GLOBAL_STATIC;Q_IMPORT_PLUGIN;Q_PROPERTY;Q_UNUSED;QTEST_KDEMAIN;QTEST_MAIN'''
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-Pedantic.sh
 +
*astyle cannot (yet) do it
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:Pedantic.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
=== No "one line" '''if''' '''for''' '''while''' statement ===
 +
 
 +
Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Braces
 +
 
 +
The following code:
 +
{{Output|1=if (a > b) c = 123;}}
 +
is correct, but we prefer the block:
 +
{{Output|1=if (a > b) {
 +
  c = 123;
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
which is easier to debug, to read and to modify.
 +
 
 +
It is also possible to put a breakpoint at the line in the block.
 +
 
 +
As the awk-script is too simple to recognize all the if-statements, we get some false alarm and
 +
we can't make the changes automatically.
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-OneLine-If.sh
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:One-Line-If.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 +
{{Output|1=check the file if-example.cpp
 +
25: one-line-if found
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
=== No space between some keywords ===
 +
 
 +
We don't want to have a space:
 +
*after a '''*''' (star), but at the multiplication
 +
*between '''&''' and '''>'''
 +
*between '''*''' and '''>'''
 +
*between '''(''' and ''')''', an empty parameter list.
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-No-Space.sh
 +
 
 +
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 +
{{Output|1=check the file NO-space-example.cpp
 +
15: Star<Space> found. Check it.  int * myA;
 +
28: AND<Space> found. Check it.  abc( & myA);
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:NO-space.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
=== No space around the index of an array ===
 +
 
 +
We don't want to have spaces around the index of an array element.
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-No-Space.sh
 +
 
 +
The output of the '''check''' script is:
 +
{{Output|1=check the file NO-space-example.cpp
 +
15: [<Space> found. Check it.  a = b[ i ];
 +
15: <Space>] found. Check it.  a = b[ i ];
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:NO-space.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
=== No space around an expression surrounded with braces ===
 +
 
 +
We prefer function definition and function call with no space after the opening brace and before the closing brace.
 +
 
 +
*coding-style-check-Parenthesis.sh
 +
*This is well done with astyle:
 +
{{Output| 1=astyle --unpad-paren
 +
}}
 +
Note that astyle makes also changes within the macros SIGNAL and SLOT, which aren't desired.
 +
This can be corrected with a Qt-utility qt5/qtrepotools/util/normalize/normalize:
 +
{{Output| 1=normalize --modify ''filename''
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:Parenthesis.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
=== No space before ''':''' in a case statement ===
 +
 
 +
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
 +
 
 +
=== No space before ''';''' at the end of statement ===
 +
 
 +
We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.
 +
 
 +
== Use all the scripts ==
 +
 
 +
All the scripts can be used with one only script.
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:All.tar.gz]]
 +
 
 +
=== put the comments away, change the strings, don't read the directive ===
 +
 
 +
The comments might contain some keyword. It is very difficult to avoid the confusion with the very simple awk-scripts. We prefer to change all the comments with the same number of empty lines.
 +
It is very difficult to parse the strings correctly, so we prefer to change them to an empty string.
 +
The same with the directive, so we prefer to change them to an empty line.
 +
 
 +
*CoStrDef.awk
 +
 
 +
Download the scripts: [[Media:CoStrDef.tar.gz]]
  
== Check the objects ==
+
== Check the objects and the libs ==
  
 
As a first approach, not any object may have binary change after applying one of the rules.
 
As a first approach, not any object may have binary change after applying one of the rules.
To check this, one uses the '''Check-the-Objects.sh'''. Download the script: [[Media:Check-the-Objects.sh.gz]]
+
To check this, one uses the '''Md5sum-the-Objects.sh'''. Download the script: [[Media:Md5sum-the-Objects.sh.gz]]
 +
Same for the libs. Use the '''Md5sum-the-Libs.sh'''. Download the script: [[Media:Md5sum-the-Libs.sh.gz]]
  
 
The script can be used with one of the commands:
 
The script can be used with one of the commands:
Line 96: Line 663:
 
duplicates the line, add a ''-S option'' and changes the name of the output to ''somename.s''.
 
duplicates the line, add a ''-S option'' and changes the name of the output to ''somename.s''.
 
After a new ''make'' command, we can save all the assembler files with the script '''Check-the-assembler_code.sh'''.
 
After a new ''make'' command, we can save all the assembler files with the script '''Check-the-assembler_code.sh'''.
Download the script: [[Media:Prepare-build_make_files.sh.gz]]
+
Download the script: [[Media:Prepare-build_make_files.gz]]
  
 
=== Remove the debug informations ===
 
=== Remove the debug informations ===
  
The biggest part of the debug informations beginns with the directive line
+
The debug informations change with the changes of line numbers.
*.Ldebug_info0
+
We drop all these debug informations before making the test.
We drop all the next lines.
+
 
+
We drop also the lines with the directive .loc
+
They contain an information about the source line (here 123) we need later to drop the lines
+
* movl $123, %edx
+
* movl $123, %ecx
+
 
+
The lines with
+
* .string "/home/guy-kde/projects/kdepimlibs/akonadi/agentbase.cpp:454"
+
will be also removed.
+
  
 
The script to check the assembler files can be used in the same way as the one above (Check-the-Objects.sh).
 
The script to check the assembler files can be used in the same way as the one above (Check-the-Objects.sh).
Line 121: Line 678:
 
* clean
 
* clean
  
== The scripts ==
+
== The results of the migration ==
The first script is '''to check''' a single file or a complete directory for all .h and
+
.cpp files.
+
  
If present, the second script '''makes the changes''' for a single file or a complete
+
The results can be seen [[here]].
directory for all .h and .cpp files.  For some complicated situations, the
+
script makes no change.
+
 
+
One can use the scripts for own work.It is recommanded to use them in this order.
+
 
+
==== don't use any <TAB>s ====
+
*coding-style-check-Tabs.sh
+
*coding-style-change-Tabs.sh
+
 
+
Download the scripts: [[Media:Tabs.tar.gz]]
+
 
+
The output of the '''check''' script is:
+
{{Output|1=check the file /home/guy-kde/projects/kdepimlibs/ktnef/ktnefparser.cpp
+
1->308: Tab at 16:  stream_ >> i;              // i <- attribute type & name
+
2->311: Tab at 16:  stream_ >> i;              // i <- data length
+
3->326: Tab at 22:  case attATTACHMENT:        // try to get attachment info
+
4->367: Tab at 16:  stream_ >> u;      // u <- checksum
+
a  b    c            d}}
+
 
+
This shows:
+
* the name of the file which is under test.
+
* the number of occurence('''a'''), the line number('''b'''), the position found('''c''') and the line itself('''d''').
+
 
+
The '''change''' script:
+
*makes a substitution of any <TAB> with eight spaces,
+
*The change works for the complete source, even within comments and strings,
+
*That might be too much and changes the vertical alignment of the code.
+
 
+
==== Trim the lines ====
+
 
+
*coding-style-check-Trim.sh
+
*coding-style-change-Trim.sh
+
 
+
Download the scripts: [[Media:Trim.tar.gz]]
+
 
+
The output of the '''check''' script is:
+
{{Output|1=check the file /home/guy-kde/Software/coding-style-check/trim.cpp
+
1->51: Space(s) at end of line (28):  QVariant m_matchData;}}
+
 
+
This shows:
+
* the name of the file which is under test.
+
* the number of occurence, the line number, the position found and the line itself.
+
 
+
 
+
The '''change''' script:
+
*remove all trailing space(s).
+
 
+
==== Only single empty lines should be used ====
+
 
+
*coding-style-check-Twice.sh
+
*coding-style-change-Twice.sh
+
 
+
The output of the '''check''' script is:
+
{{Output|1=check the file /home/guy-kde/projects/kdepimlibs/syndication/rss2/enclosure.cpp
+
1->25: next empty line found
+
2->26: next empty line found
+
3->30: next empty line found}}
+
   
+
This shows:
+
* the name of the file which is under test.
+
* the number of occurrences and the line numbers.
+
 
+
The '''change''' script:
+
*removes all the next empty line(s).
+
 
+
==== First line, last line(s) may not be empty ====
+
 
+
Some of the sources have a first empty lines, some have one or more empty last line(s).
+
*coding-style-check-First-Last.sh
+
*coding-style-change-First-Last.sh
+
 
+
The output of the '''check''' script is:
+
{{Output|1=check the file /home/guy-kde/Software/coding-style-check/trim.cpp
+
The first line is empty
+
The last line is empty}}
+
   
+
The '''change''' script:
+
*removes the first line if empty, all the last empty line(s).
+
 
+
====no "one line" if-statement====
+
 
+
The following code:
+
{{Output|1=if ( a > b ) c = 123;}}
+
is correct, but we prefer the block:
+
{{Output|1=if ( a > b ) {
+
  c = 123;
+
} }}
+
which is easier to read, to modify. It is also possible to put a breakpoint at the line in the block.
+
As the awk-script is too simple to recognize all the if-statements, we get some false alarm and
+
we can't make the changes automatically.
+

Latest revision as of 16:35, 26 March 2014

Contents

[edit] Purpose of this document

This document describes the recommended coding style for kdepim and akonadi. Nobody is forced to use this style, but to have consistent formatting of the source code files it is strongly recommended to make use of it.

In short: Kdepim and akonadi coding style follows the Kdelibs coding style.

[edit] Why is coding Style usefull?

Let us make a comparision with real life. To make an addition, one can do:

123
+      456
  ==========
     =      579

But we have learned at the primary to write:

Addition
  123
 +456
 ====
 =579

Which is much more readable, easy to control (or debug).

This is Coding Style: not necessary but very usefull, and pretty to read.

[edit] What do we need?

We need at least:

  • a specification (a set of rules) for the coding style of the sources
  • some tools to check the sources against the specification
  • some tools to change the sources

astyle is a pretty tool to make such changes. But astyle doesn't implement (yet) all the specification rules.

You can find below some awk-scripts which help us to check all the rules.

You can find below some awk-scripts which help us to make most of the changes. The last part must be done manually.

[edit] The specification rules of coding style for kdepim and akonadi

  • Identation with four spaces, don't use any <TAB>s
  • Trim the lines
  • Only single empty lines
  • The first line, the last line(s) may not be empty
  • Only one statement per line
  • Variable declaration
  • Only one declaration per line
  • Use a space after each keyword, but not after a cast
  • Use a space after the name of the class
  • include directive
  • Place * and & near the variable
  • Use namespace foo { in the same line
  • Each member initialization of a method in a separate line
  • Surround all operators with spaces
  • switch rules
  • try-catch rules
  • if, for, while and similar macros rules
  • typedef statement over more lines
  • Don't use &, without a variable
  • Don't use untyped enum
  • Don't use enum with empty member
  • No ; after some macros
  • No "one line" if for while statement
  • No code after {
  • No code before '} (but else)
  • No header and body code in the same line, even empty body
  • No space between some keywords
  • No space around the index of an array
  • No space around an expression surrounded with braces
  • No space before : in a case statement
  • No space before ; at the end of statement

[edit] Migration

As discussed at the KDEPIM meeting, Berlin, 3 March 2013, all the files of KDEPIM will be reviewed to follow the coding style. This will be done over a long time, directory after directory, for each of the rules defined above. For each rule, one can find one or two script(s).

The main part of the changes can be done with astyle: http://astyle.sourceforge.net/

The results can be seen here.

[edit] Two scripts to check all the rules and to make the all the changes

Most of the rules can be check with the scripts below. For some of the rules, we don't have a script to change the sources. It is better to make first a check for such a rule, make the modification(s) to suscript the rule(s) before using the change-script(s).

If one wants all-in-one scripts, please use:

  • All-Check.sh
  • Change-All.sh

Download the scripts: Media:ALL-Coding-Style.tar.gz

[edit] The scripts to check and to make the changes

The first script is to check a single file or a complete directory for all .h and .cpp files.

If present, the second script makes the changes for a single file or a complete directory for all .h and .cpp files. For some complicated situations, the script makes no change.

One can use the scripts for own work.It is recommanded to use them in this order.

[edit] Don't test all directories

If a .no_coding_style file is present on a directory, the test will not be done.

If a .no_recursion file is present on a directory, we do not explore the subdirectory(ies)

[edit] Identation with four spaces, don't use any <TAB>s

  • coding-style-check-Tabs.sh
  • The changes are well done with
astyle --indent=spaces

Download the scripts: Media:Tabs.tar.gz

The output of the check script is:

check the file ktnefparser.cpp
308: Tab at 16:   stream_ >> i;              // i <- attribute type & name
311: Tab at 16:   stream_ >> i;              // i <- data length
326: Tab at 22:   case attATTACHMENT:        // try to get attachment info
367: Tab at 16:   stream_ >> u;      // u <- checksum

This shows:

  • the name of the file which is under test.
  • the line number, the position found and the line itself.

[edit] Trim the lines

  • coding-style-check-Trim.sh
  • The changes are well done with:
astyle --indent=spaces

Download the scripts: Media:Trim.tar.gz

The output of the check script is:

check the file trim.cpp
51: Space(s) at end of line (28):   QVariant m_matchData;

This shows:

  • the name of the file which is under test.
  • the line number, the position found and the line itself.

[edit] Only single empty lines

Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Whitespace

  • coding-style-check-Twice.sh
  • coding-style-change-Twice.sh
  • astyle cannot (yet) do it

Download the scripts: Media:Twice.tar.gz

The output of the check script is:

check the file enclosure.cpp
25: next empty line found
26: next empty line found
30: next empty line found

This shows:

  • the name of the file which is under test.
  • the line numbers.

The change script:

  • removes all the next empty line(s).

[edit] First line, last line(s) may not be empty

Some of the sources have a first empty lines, some have one or more empty last line(s).

  • coding-style-check-First-Last.sh
  • coding-style-change-First-Last.sh
  • astyle cannot (yet) do it

Download the scripts: Media:First.tar.gz

The output of the check script is:

check the file trim.cpp
The first line is empty
The last line is empty

The change script:

  • removes the first line if empty, all the last empty line(s).

[edit] Only one statement per line

We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.

[edit] Variable declaration

We follow the kdelibs rule: [[1]] We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.

[edit] Only one declaration per line

We follow the kdelibs rule: [[2]] We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.

[edit] Use one space after each keyword, but not after a cast

Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Whitespace

For most of the keywords, it is not necessary to make a test. Because the sources have been already compiled. For example this code never appear in a compiled source:

intmyVariableAa;
floatmyVariableAb;

Some of the keywords are alone in the statement, such as break and continue. No test is necessary.

The only tests we have to do are the ones where a keyword is (or can be) followed by a sign ( { [ :

These are: alignas decltype alignof noexcept typeid asm static_assert switch if catch while for sizeof new Q_FOREACH do try enum union Q_FOREVER bool char char16_t char32_t double float int long wchar_t signed unsigned short

For only one keyword:

  • coding-style-check-SpaceAfterKeyword.sh
  • coding-style-change-SpaceAfterKeyword.sh


For all keywords above:

  • coding-style-check-SpaceAfter.sh
  • coding-style-change-SpaceAfter.sh


[edit] Use a space after the name of the class

We prefer having a space before the keyword public at the definition of a new class:

class DbException : public Akonadi::Exception
{
  ...
};
  • coding-style-check-Public.sh
  • coding-style-change-Public.sh
  • astyle cannot (yet) do it

Download the scripts: Media:Public.tar.gz

Download the scripts: Media:SpaceAfter.tar.gz

The output of the check script is:

check the file contactstreemodel.cpp
98:  if( at 10:           if(contact.realName().isEmpty()) {
99:  if( at 12:             if(contact.preferredEmail().isEmpty()) {

The change script:

  • puts a space after the keyword.

[edit] #include directive

Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Qt_Includes

We prefer no space at the beginning of the directive. Some (not many) files need to be corrected to unify to all the other files.

// some files use this
# include <A/b>

// we prefer, to unify the coding style
#include <A/b>
  • coding-style-check-Space-Include.sh

Download the scripts: Media:Space-Include.tar.gz

[edit] Place * and & near the variable

The declaration S *D; declares D as a pointer to the type determined by decl-specifier-seq S.

The most compilers do not make any difference for such lines of code:

int *a;
int* b;
int * c

We prefer the first one, without a space beetwen the star and the name of the variable:

int *a;

The same rule may be use for:

myFunction(int &a, int& b, int & c)
{
    // some lines
}

We prefer:

myFunction(int &a, int &b, int &c)

The awk-script checks also the occurences of:

  • &,
  • & >
  • * >
  • ( ) and ( ) empty function call
  • enum { untyped enum

Not all the ouputs are real errors. Some codings might be correct.

  • coding-style-check-NO-Space.sh
  • using astyle to make the changes:
astyle --reference=name --align-pointer=name


Some lines with "type & name..." must be manually corrected.

Download the scripts: Media:NO-Space.tar.gz

The script gives informations about the found line(s).

[edit] Use namespace foo { in the same line

We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.

[edit] Each member initialization of a method in separate line

This example shows the indentation we prefer:

class myClass {
    // some lines
public:
    myClass(int r, int b, int i, int j)
        : r(0)
        , b(i)
        , i(5)
        , j(13)
{
    // more lines
}
  • coding-style-check-Default-1.sh
  • coding-style-check-Default-2.sh
  • coding-style-change-Default-1.sh
  • coding-style-change-Default-2.sh
  • astyle cannot (yet) do it

Download the scripts: Media:Default.tar.gz

[edit] Surround all operators with spaces

This is well done with astyle:

astyle --pad-oper

[edit] switch rules

This example shows the indentation we prefer:

switch (a) {
case one:
    // some lines
    break;
case two: {
    // some lines
    break;
}
default:
    // some lines
    break;
}
  • coding-style-check-Switch.sh
  • astyle

Download the scripts: Media:Switch.tar.gz

[edit] try-catch rules

This example shows the indentation we prefer:

try {
    // some lines
} catch (...) {
}
  • coding-style-check-Try.sh

Download the scripts: Media:Try.tar.gz

[edit] if, for, while (and similar macros) rules

Even for block with only one statement, we prefer to use braces such as:

if (condition) {
    statement;
}

This should be used with the keywords if, for, while and similar macros. The output of the check script is:

check the file test-if.cpp
62: if without { at end of line:     if ( collection.cachePolicyLocalParts() )
  • coding-style-check-If.sh
  • astyle

Download the scripts: Media:If.tar.gz

But we get some false alarm with statement over more than one line:

if (condition_1
    && condition_2) {
    statement;
}

[edit] typedef statement over more lines

We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.

[edit] Don't use &, without a variable

[edit] Don't use untyped enum

Instead of having an untyped enum such as:

enum {
    aElement= 123
}

we prefer a #define directive:

#define aElement 123

Download the scripts: Media:Enum.tar.gz

[edit] Don't use enum with empty member

The most compilers do not complain such a code:

enum mytype {
    aElement,
    bElement,
}

The last element is empty. We prefer a "pedantic" code such as:

enum mytype {
    aElement,
    bElement
}
  • coding-style-check-Enum-Pedantic.sh

The output of the check script is:

check the file enum-example.cpp
enum with ,} found at
3->    bElement,
4->  }

Download the scripts: Media:Enum-Pedantic.tar.gz

[edit] No ; after some macros

Looking over the git-history, one can find some "pedantic" changes. These are changes to make a better code. The most of them are at the use of macro, where it is not necessary to have a ; at the end ofthe command. The script make a check over all these: AKTEST_MAIN;MAKE_CMD_ROW;Q_DECLARE_FLAGS;Q_PRIVATE_SLOT;Q_DECLARE_METATYPE;Q_DECLARE_OPERATORS_FOR_FLAGS;Q_DE CLARE_PRIVATE;Q_DECLARE_PUBLIC;Q_DISABLE_COPY;K_GLOBAL_STATIC;Q_IMPORT_PLUGIN;Q_PROPERTY;Q_UNUSED;QTEST_KDEMAIN;QTEST_MAIN

  • coding-style-check-Pedantic.sh
  • astyle cannot (yet) do it

Download the scripts: Media:Pedantic.tar.gz

[edit] No "one line" if for while statement

Refer to http://techbase.kde.org/Policies/Kdelibs_Coding_Style#Braces

The following code:

if (a > b) c = 123;

is correct, but we prefer the block:

if (a > b) {
   c = 123;
}

which is easier to debug, to read and to modify.

It is also possible to put a breakpoint at the line in the block.

As the awk-script is too simple to recognize all the if-statements, we get some false alarm and we can't make the changes automatically.

  • coding-style-check-OneLine-If.sh

Download the scripts: Media:One-Line-If.tar.gz

The output of the check script is:

check the file if-example.cpp
25: one-line-if found

[edit] No space between some keywords

We don't want to have a space:

  • after a * (star), but at the multiplication
  • between & and >
  • between * and >
  • between ( and ), an empty parameter list.
  • coding-style-check-No-Space.sh

The output of the check script is:

check the file NO-space-example.cpp
15: Star<Space> found. Check it.   int * myA;
28: AND<Space> found. Check it.   abc( & myA);

Download the scripts: Media:NO-space.tar.gz

[edit] No space around the index of an array

We don't want to have spaces around the index of an array element.

  • coding-style-check-No-Space.sh

The output of the check script is:

check the file NO-space-example.cpp
15: [<Space> found. Check it.   a = b[ i ];
15: <Space>] found. Check it.   a = b[ i ];

Download the scripts: Media:NO-space.tar.gz

[edit] No space around an expression surrounded with braces

We prefer function definition and function call with no space after the opening brace and before the closing brace.

  • coding-style-check-Parenthesis.sh
  • This is well done with astyle:
astyle --unpad-paren

Note that astyle makes also changes within the macros SIGNAL and SLOT, which aren't desired. This can be corrected with a Qt-utility qt5/qtrepotools/util/normalize/normalize:

normalize --modify filename

Download the scripts: Media:Parenthesis.tar.gz

[edit] No space before : in a case statement

We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.

[edit] No space before ; at the end of statement

We don't provide (yet) any check for this rule.

[edit] Use all the scripts

All the scripts can be used with one only script.

Download the scripts: Media:All.tar.gz

[edit] put the comments away, change the strings, don't read the directive

The comments might contain some keyword. It is very difficult to avoid the confusion with the very simple awk-scripts. We prefer to change all the comments with the same number of empty lines. It is very difficult to parse the strings correctly, so we prefer to change them to an empty string. The same with the directive, so we prefer to change them to an empty line.

  • CoStrDef.awk

Download the scripts: Media:CoStrDef.tar.gz

[edit] Check the objects and the libs

As a first approach, not any object may have binary change after applying one of the rules. To check this, one uses the Md5sum-the-Objects.sh. Download the script: Media:Md5sum-the-Objects.sh.gz Same for the libs. Use the Md5sum-the-Libs.sh. Download the script: Media:Md5sum-the-Libs.sh.gz

The script can be used with one of the commands:

  • save
  • test
  • clean

An example:

cd <some_kdepim_directory>
mkdir build
cd build
ccmake ../
make
Scanning dependencies of target gpgmepp
[  0%] Building CXX object gpgme++/CMakeFiles/gpgmepp.dir/gpgmepp_automoc.cpp.o
[  0%] Building CXX object gpgme++/CMakeFiles/gpgmepp.dir/exception.cpp.o
[  0%] Building CXX object gpgme++/CMakeFiles/gpgmepp.dir/context.cpp.o
...
Check-the-Objects.sh save

The script makes a copy of all the objects and a "time stamp":

save the object ./kholidays/tests/CMakeFiles/testzodiac.dir/testzodiac.cpp.o
save the object ./kholidays/tests/CMakeFiles/testzodiac.dir/testzodiac_automoc.cpp.o
...
all objects are saved

Now, one makes somes change(s) on the source(s) and:

make

Depending on the Makefile, some objects will be compiled again:

Scanning dependencies of target akonadi-kde
[ 17%] Building CXX object akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/entitytreeview.cpp.o
[ 17%] Building CXX object akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/itemfetchjob.cpp.o
[ 17%] Building CXX object akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/statisticsproxymodel.cpp.o
...
Scanning dependencies of target akonadi-kmime
[ 56%] Building CXX object akonadi/kmime/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kmime.dir/standardmailactionmanager.cpp.o
Check-the-Objects.sh test

The script finds all the new objects, makes a comparision with the saved version:

test the object ./akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/statisticsproxymodel.cpp.o
test the object ./akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/entitytreeview.cpp.o
test the object ./akonadi/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kde.dir/itemfetchjob.cpp.o
test the object ./akonadi/kmime/CMakeFiles/akonadi-kmime.dir/standardmailactionmanager.cpp.o
all tests are OK

[edit] Check the assembler files

If we add or remove some lines, the debug informations included in the object file will be change also.

This is the case with the test/change of "Only single empty lines should be used", "First line, last line(s) may not be empty" and some more test/change below (adding some blocks with { and }).

For this reason it is no more possible to compare the objects. We have to compare the assembler files. This works pretty well for the version with CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE set to release. For the version with CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE set to debug, we must remove all the debug informations before the comparision could take place.

[edit] Generate the assembler files

To generate the assembler files, we only need to modify the build.make in every folder.

The script Prepare-build_make_files.sh works on the all directory, finds the line with the compiler command, duplicates the line, add a -S option and changes the name of the output to somename.s. After a new make command, we can save all the assembler files with the script Check-the-assembler_code.sh. Download the script: Media:Prepare-build_make_files.gz

[edit] Remove the debug informations

The debug informations change with the changes of line numbers. We drop all these debug informations before making the test.

The script to check the assembler files can be used in the same way as the one above (Check-the-Objects.sh). To check this, one uses the Check-the-assembler_code.sh. Download the script: Media:Check-the-assembler_code.sh.gz

The script can be used with one of the commands:

  • save
  • test
  • clean

[edit] The results of the migration

The results can be seen here.


This page was last modified on 26 March 2014, at 16:35. This page has been accessed 11,795 times. Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 3.0 as well as the GNU Free Documentation License 1.2.
KDE® and the K Desktop Environment® logo are registered trademarks of KDE e.V.Legal