Difference between revisions of "Getting Started/Set up KDE 4 for development (pt BR)"

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{{Template:I18n/Language Navigation Bar|Getting_Started/Set up KDE 4 for development}}
 +
{{TutorialBrowser|
 +
 
 +
series=Começando|
 +
 
 +
name=Configuração para desenvolvimento do KDE 4|
 +
 
 +
pre=[[Getting_Started/Build/KDE4|Construindo o KDE 4]]|
 +
 
 +
next=[[Development|Outros tópicos de desenvolvimento]]|
 +
 
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{note|Esta página presume que você tenha construído kdelibs, kdepimlibs, e kdebase de acordo com [[Getting Started/Build/KDE4|estas]] instruções}}
 +
 
 +
== Iniciando KDE 4 apps & sessões ==
 +
 
 +
Como você começa o desenvolvimento para o KDE 4, geralmente há três opções disponíveis para você:
 +
* Você pode [[Getting_Started/Set_up_KDE_4_for_development#Launching_KDE_4_apps|executar os apps do KDE 4 ao lado de outros apps]] no seu ambiente de trabalho atual.
 +
* Você pode [[Getting_Started/Set_up_KDE_4_for_development#Nested_KDE_4_session|inserir uma sessão do KDE 4]] no seu ambiente de trabalho atual.
 +
* Você pode  [[Getting_Started/Set_up_KDE_4_for_development#Solitary_KDE_4_session|executar o KDE 4 como único ambiente de trabalho]] na sua máquina.
 +
 
 +
As três opções são descritas nas seções seguintes.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|
 +
Se você obter erros ao executar qualquer aplicativo kde4, tais como:
 +
  Qt: erro de gestão de sessão: Não foi possível abrir o soquete de rede
 +
  QMutex::lock: Deadlock detectado na linha -1241241936
 +
ou quando você executar startkde e ficar emperrado, leia [http://www.nabble.com/QMutex::lock:-Deadlock-detected---running-KDE4-apps-%22using-the-normal-shell%22-t3584446.html este artigo] para a solução.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
=== Iniciando KDE 4 apps ===
 +
==== Usando o shell normal com sux ====
 +
 
 +
Para este método, é necessária a ferramenta '''sux''' (http://fgouget.free.fr/sux/sux-readme.shtml). '''sux''' está disponível na maioria das distribuições. De outro modo você pode contar com o método abaixo ''shell normal sem sux''. '''sux''' permite que você mude para outro usuário com um gerenciamento implícito dos detalhes de encaminhamento de X (autenticação e exportação de DISPLAY) de uma forma clara e simples.
 +
 
 +
Fazer o login, tipo <code bash>sux - kde-devel</code>
 +
 
 +
Todas as variáveis de ambiente e todo o resto deve ser configurado corretamente pelo seu{{path|[[Getting_Started/Increased_Productivity_in_KDE4_with_Scripts/.bashrc|.bashrc]]}}. Para iniciar uma aplicação, basta digitar seu nome, por exemplo <code bash>kwrite</code>
 +
{{Note|
 +
Se você receber erros sobre mimetypes ausentes ou algo parecido, tente o seguinte:
 +
* execute <code bash>unset XDG_DATA_DIRS ; kbuildsycoca4</code>
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
==== Usando o shell normal sem sux ====
 +
O método mais simples para iniciar aplicativos do KDE 4 é usando <tt>su</tt> para logar como usuário <tt>kde-devel</tt> e, em seguida, iniciar qualquer aplicativo do KDE 4 a partir da linha de comando. Fazer o login, tipo
 +
 
 +
<code bash>su - kde-devel</code>
 +
 
 +
e, em seguida, digitar sua senha
 +
<code bash>export DISPLAY=:0</code>
 +
{{Note|Exporting the <tt>DISPLAY</tt> variable is necessary so that the KDE 4 applications appear on your normal KDE 3 desktop.}}
 +
All environment variables and everything else should be set up correctly by your {{path|[[Getting_Started/Increased_Productivity_in_KDE4_with_Scripts/.bashrc|.bashrc]]}}. To start an application, simply type it's name; for example <code bash>kwrite</code>
 +
{{Note|
 +
If you get errors about missing mimetypes or such, try the following:
 +
* run <code bash>unset XDG_DATA_DIRS ; kbuildsycoca4</code>
 +
}}
 +
{{Note|
 +
If you get an error about not being able to connect to an X server, be sure to issue
 +
<code bash>sudo xhost +local:kde-devel</code>
 +
as your regular KDE 3 user to ensure that the application can connect to your current X session.
 +
 
 +
Although your X server should accept incoming TCP connections, this is often switched off as a distribution default (like with Kubuntu Feisty). When using <tt>kdm</tt> you must edit <tt>/etc/kde3/kdm/kdmrc</tt> as root and make sure it does not contain:
 +
<code>ServerArgsLocal=-nolisten tcp</code>
 +
Once you have fixed this, you will need to restart your X server. The <tt>xhost</tt> command should no longer return an "unable to open display" error.
 +
 
 +
For convenience, you should put this in the Autostart of your regular user. To do this, create a new file in the <tt>$HOME/.kde/Autostart</tt> directory of your regular user with the following content:
 +
<code bash>
 +
#! /bin/sh
 +
xhost +local:kde-devel
 +
</code>
 +
Make sure that the new file is executable by using <tt>chmod +x</tt> on it.
 +
 
 +
If you'd like to find out more about the '''security issues''' involved with using <tt>xhost</tt>, see [http://bau2.uibk.ac.at/matic/xsecur.htm this article]
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
==== Using SSH ====
 +
 
 +
The simplest way to run a KDE 4 application with SSH in your current desktop environment is to get an X-aware shell prompt as the <tt>kde-devel</tt> user like this:
 +
<code bash>ssh -X kde-devel@localhost</code>
 +
Now you can launch KDE apps as usual, for example:
 +
<code bash>kwrite</code>
 +
The two lines can be conveniently combined:
 +
<code bash>ssh -X kde-devel@localhost kwrite</code>
 +
 
 +
{{Note|
 +
If this gives you any errors, try the troubleshooting tips from the section above.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
===== Passwordless login =====
 +
Before anything serious can be done using this method, a passwordless login needs to be set up. To start, run the following command as the regular desktop user:
 +
<code bash>ssh-keygen -t rsa</code>
 +
Hit enter three times to accept the path of {{path|~/.ssh/id_rsa}} and an empty passphrase. Now, copy the single line in {{path|~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub}} that's printed after running this command:
 +
<code bash>cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub</code>
 +
After that line is copied, <tt>ssh</tt> back into the <tt>kde-devel</tt> user and put the copied line in the file {{path|$HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys}}:
 +
<code bash>ssh -X kde-devel@localhost $HOME/kde/bin/kwrite \
 +
  $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys</code>
 +
Paste in the line, save the file, and quit KWrite.
 +
 
 +
Next make sure {{path|$HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys}} has the correct permissions:
 +
<code bash>ssh kde-devel@localhost chmod og-xrw ~kde-devel/.ssh/authorized_keys</code>
 +
Now try running KWrite again with the same SSH command; you shouldn't have to enter a password anymore:
 +
<code bash>ssh -X kde-devel@localhost $HOME/kde/bin/kwrite</code>
 +
 
 +
{{warning|Using a passwordless SSH login has certain '''security risks''', so make sure you protect your <tt>~/.ssh/id_rsa</tt> file by restricting access to it with
 +
<code bash>chmod og-xrw ~/.ssh/id_rsa</code>(although the file should have these permissions when it is created)}}
 +
 
 +
===== The SSH desktop file =====
 +
If you want to be able to launch apps more easily than running them with an SSH command from the command line, one way is to create <tt>.desktop</tt> files that <tt>ssh</tt> into the other account.
 +
{{Note|This will only be useful if your desktop environment supports .desktop files, but at least KDE and GNOME do.}}
 +
 
 +
You can start with an existing .desktop file as a template (like one from your desktop) or you can make one from scratch. The main idea is to prefix the command being run with this string:
 +
<code bash>
 +
ssh -X kde-devel@localhost $HOME/kde/bin/
 +
</code>
 +
 
 +
A simple .desktop file that runs KWrite would have the following contents:
 +
 
 +
<code ini>
 +
[Desktop Entry]
 +
Categories=Qt;KDE;TextEditor;
 +
Comment=
 +
DocPath=kwrite/index.html
 +
Encoding=UTF-8
 +
Exec=ssh -X kde-devel@localhost /home/kde-devel/kde/bin/kwrite %U
 +
GenericName=Text Editor
 +
Icon=kwrite
 +
InitialPreference=8
 +
MimeType=text/plain
 +
Name=KWrite (kde-devel)
 +
Path=
 +
StartupNotify=false
 +
Terminal=false
 +
TerminalOptions=
 +
Type=Application
 +
X-DBUS-StartupType=Multi
 +
X-DCOP-ServiceType=non
 +
X-KDE-StartupNotify=true
 +
X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false
 +
X-KDE-Username=
 +
</code>
 +
 
 +
{{tip|Apps launched using SSH like this don't trigger the correct launch responses, so you probably want to disable "launch feedback" for your .desktop files}}
 +
 
 +
{{note|In order to create a .desktop file for a KDE 4 app by using this pattern, the app's package will have to have been installed into <tt>~/kde/bin</tt> using the <tt>cmakekde</tt> command}}
 +
 
 +
=== Launching KDE 4 sessions ===
 +
==== Nested KDE 4 session ====
 +
    {|align="right"
 +
    |[[image:Snapshot1.png|right|thumb|200px|Nested]]
 +
    |}
 +
Instead of using a full-blown new virtual X for developing software you can use Xephyr to embed your KDE 4 session into your working KDE 3 or other X11 environment.
 +
 
 +
You can also do this with xnest, but as xnest cannot handle extensions like Render many people prefer Xephyr.
 +
 
 +
If you want to get a minimal KDE session up and running, just launch Xephyr (available in Kubuntu as xserver-xephyr; Gentoo users compile x11-base/xorg-server with USE="kdrive"):
 +
 
 +
Xephyr :1 -extension GLX &
 +
 
 +
You can now launch KDE:
 +
 
 +
<code bash>
 +
su - $USER
 +
export DISPLAY=:1
 +
/path/to/kde4/bin/startkde-modified &
 +
</code>
 +
 
 +
startkde-modified is a copy of the startkde-script which includes the following lines on the top:
 +
 
 +
<code bash>
 +
export KDEDIR=`kde4-config --prefix`
 +
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$KDEDIR/lib
 +
export PATH=$KDEDIR/bin/:$PATH
 +
export KDEHOME=~/.kde4
 +
</code>
 +
 
 +
You can also use Xephyr with KDM via the Xdmcp protocol and simply a new KDE 4 session to KDM.
 +
 +
On Kubuntu, you can enable it by changing
 +
 
 +
<code ini>
 +
[Xdmcp]
 +
# Whether KDM should listen to incoming XDMCP requests.
 +
# Default is true
 +
Enable=false
 +
</code>
 +
 
 +
in {{path|/etc/kde3/kdm/kdmrc}} to
 +
 
 +
<code ini>
 +
[Xdmcp]
 +
# Whether KDM should listen to incoming XDMCP requests.
 +
# Default is true
 +
Enable=true
 +
</code>
 +
 
 +
and adjust your {{path|/etc/kde3/kdm/Xaccess}} to allow your local machine access. Additionally you should make sure to set up a port blocking policy on all external interfaces for the Xdmcp port if you are doing this on a laptop or a PC in an untrusted environment.
 +
 +
If you are done, simply launch Xephyr:
 +
 +
Xephyr -query localhost :1 -host-cursor -screen 1024x768&
 +
 
 +
where <tt>-host-cursor</tt> tries to reuse the host's cursor and <tt>-screen</tt> sets the screen dimensions.
 +
 
 +
Note: If you get lots of refused connection errors, you might want to use the -ac option of Xephyr. For example:
 +
 
 +
Xephyr -ac :1&
 +
 
 +
Another option to try if you get lots of refused connection errors is you may need to grant assess to your kde-devel user to your X server.  As root or using sudo execute:
 +
 
 +
xhost +local:kde-devel
 +
 
 +
If you do not have Xephyr, you can also use Xnest:
 +
 
 +
Xnest -ac :1& export DISPLAY=:1
 +
 
 +
<BR>
 +
-----
 +
{{improve}}
 +
[[User:Sping|Sping]] 00:25, 9 April 2007 (CEST)<BR>
 +
I use this for my start script ''nested_kde4.sh'':
 +
 
 +
#! /bin/bash
 +
NESTED_KDE_DISPLAY_BACKUP=$DISPLAY
 +
export DISPLAY=:0
 +
Xephyr :1 -screen 1024x768 &
 +
export DISPLAY=:1
 +
$HOME/kde/bin/startkde-modified &
 +
export DISPLAY=${NESTED_KDE_DISPLAY_BACKUP}
 +
 
 +
If you run into
 +
 
 +
"Call to lnusertemp failed (temporary directories full?).
 +
  Check your installation."
 +
 
 +
try this:
 +
 
 +
mkdir /var/tmp/kde-devel-kde4
 +
 
 +
The above code assumes you work with user ''kde-devel''.
 +
{{Note|In most cases you have to replace ''startkde-modified'' with ''startkde''}}
 +
-----
 +
 
 +
==== Solitary KDE 4 session ====
 +
    {|align="right"
 +
    |[[image:solitary.png|right|thumb|200px|Solitary]]
 +
    |}
 +
To run a full KDE 4 desktop environment session, you can either start it from the command line as you normally would, with something like this:
 +
 
 +
X :1 & export DISPLAY=:1
 +
startkde
 +
 
 +
{{Note|If the X server refuses the connection saying something like: <tt>Xlib: connection to ":1.0" refused by server</tt>, try <tt>X -ac :1</tt> instead.}}
 +
 
 +
or you can can add it to your login manager. If you are using KDM (or a compatible login manager) this is done by creating a .desktop file in either {{path|`kde-config --prefix`/share/apps/kdm/sessions/}} or in {{path|/usr/share/xsessions/}}. The easiest thing to do is to copy an existing {{path|kde.desktop}} file and name it {{path|kde4.desktop}}. Open this new .desktop file in a text editor and change the <tt>Exec</tt>, <tt>TryExec</tt> and <tt>Name</tt> entries to look something like this:
 +
 
 +
<code ini>
 +
Exec=$HOME/kde/bin/startkde
 +
TryExec=$HOME/kde/bin/startkde
 +
Name=KDE4
 +
</code>
 +
 
 +
Replace {{path|$HOME/kde}} in the example above with the prefix you are installing KDE4 into.
 +
 
 +
After restarting the login manager (<tt>Alt+e</tt> in KDM) this new entry should appear in the sessions menu.
 +
 
 +
You might have to edit your startkde scripts,
 +
ie: change
 +
 
 +
this
 +
<code ini>kdehome=$HOME/.kde</code>
 +
to this
 +
<code ini>kdehome=$HOME/.kde4</code>
 +
or paste this
 +
<code ini>
 +
export KDEDIR=`kde4-config --prefix`
 +
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$KDEDIR/lib
 +
export PATH=$KDEDIR/bin/:$PATH
 +
export KDEHOME=~/.kde4
 +
</code>
 +
on top.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|You should have path to 'qdbus' program (usually it is $QTDIR/bin) in your $PATH to login successfully. If it is not there, you'll get an error message "Could not start DBus. Check your installation."}}
 +
 
 +
== Development tasks ==
 +
=== KDevelop ===
 +
 
 +
This section will explain how to use KDevelop 3.4 to develop KDE 4 applications. If you have any questions, corrections or rants about this section, please post them on the discussion page.
 +
 
 +
==== Prerequisites ====
 +
 
 +
You need at least KDevelop 3.4 for this, which is still a KDE 3 application. Versions lower than 3.4 do not have Qt 4 support among other things. The KDE 4 version of KDevelop is not yet ready for serious development. You can get KDevelop at the [http://www.kdevelop.org/index.html?filename=3.4/download.html KDevelop homepage]. Make sure you install KDevelop like all other KDE 3 applications, '''not''' with your ''kde-devel'' user.
 +
 
 +
You also need the lastest ''GDB'' version, which is currently 6.6.0.
 +
Note that the GDB version which is shipped with '''openSuse 10.3 is broken''', it constantly crashes when examining variables (which KDevelop does automatically). Use the GDB version from [http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/home:/amilcarlucas/openSUSE_10.3/ this repository] instead.
 +
 
 +
You need to have the kdelibs API documentation locally, which is described in the [[Getting_Started/Build/KDE4#Generating_local_API_documentation|build instructions]].
 +
 
 +
You also need ''ctags'', ''htdig'', ''htmerge'' and ''htsearch''. ''valgrind'' and ''callgrind'' can also be useful.
 +
 
 +
Be sure you followed the steps in the KDE 4 [[Getting_Started/Build/KDE4|build instructions]] and have a working KDE 4 environment.  Make sure simple KDE 4 applications like ''Konsole'' or ''KWrite'' can be started from the command line of the ''kde-devel'' user without problems.
 +
 
 +
The following steps are all done with the ''kde-devel'' user. You need to login as that user by typing
 +
su - kde-devel
 +
 
 +
==== Setting up the environment ====
 +
 
 +
KDevelop has no native support for CMake projects. Fortunately, CMake has the ability to generate KDevelop project files itself. In order to do this, you need to pass the ''-GKDevelop3'' flag to the ''cmake'' command. This tells CMake to generate project files for KDevelop alongside the normal makefiles. The best way to do this is to modify your ''cmakekde'' function in your [[Getting_Started/Increased_Productivity_in_KDE4_with_Scripts/.bashrc|{{path|.bashrc}}]]. Just change
 +
<code bash>
 +
cmake $srcFolder -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=$KDEDIR \
 +
-DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=debugfull&& \
 +
make && \
 +
make install;
 +
</code>
 +
to
 +
<code bash>
 +
cmake $srcFolder -GKDevelop3 -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=$KDEDIR \
 +
-DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=debugfull&& \
 +
make && \
 +
make install;
 +
</code>
 +
 
 +
After you have done that, re-login so that the changes to the {{path|.bashrc}} file take effect. Then you need to rerun ''cmakekde'' in the (root) build directory of the project you want to work on with KDevelop (if you didn't use ''-GKDevelop3'' on the [[Getting_Started/Build/KDE4#Setting_up_the_environment|building step]]). For example, if you want to work on Konsole, which lives in ''kdebase'', you need to run cmakekde in the {{path|$KDE_BUILD/KDE/kdebase}} directory. This unfortunately completely rebuilds everything, but only once when you change the generator.
 +
 
 +
Since all environment variables of the kde-devel user are KDE 4 specific, these need to be set back to match your KDE 3 environment before starting KDevelop.
 +
A simple way to do this is to add the following function to your {{path|.bashrc}}:
 +
 
 +
<code bash>
 +
function start3app {
 +
  mkdir -p /tmp/$USER-kde
 +
  export PATH=/opt/kde3/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/games
 +
  export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=
 +
  export KDETMP=/tmp/$USER-kde
 +
  export KDEVARTMP=/var/tmp/$USER-kde
 +
  export KDEHOME=$HOME/.kde
 +
  export KDEDIR=/usr
 +
  export KDEDIRS=$KDEDIR
 +
  export DISPLAY=:0
 +
  eval "$@"
 +
  source $HOME/.bashrc  #Reset environment variables again
 +
}
 +
</code>
 +
 
 +
The ''PATH'' and ''LD_LIBRARY_PATH'' variables are taken from the KDE 3 user, and they may be different on your system. Type <code bash>echo $PATH</code> and <code bash>echo $LD_LIBRARY_PATH</code> as normal KDE 3 user to get these values. The above function assumes that KDE 3 is installed in the {{path|/usr}} prefix, as it is the case on Debian-based systems. If your KDE 3 is installed to a different prefix, you need to change the line setting ''KDEDIR'' accordingly. Here's an example how you find out your KDE installation prefix; in this example it is /opt/kde3:
 +
 
 +
<code bash>
 +
kde-config --prefix
 +
/opt/kde3
 +
</code>
 +
 
 +
Now you should be able to start KDevelop by typing <tt>start3app kdevelop</tt>. Do that now.
 +
 
 +
{{tip|
 +
You can start any KDE 3 application with the <tt>start3app</tt> function. Useful candidates include ''Kompare'' and ''kdesvn''.
 +
 
 +
However, you can not start ''KDbg'' this way to debug KDE 4 applications, since then the environment variables for the debugged application are wrong.
 +
}}
 +
<!--
 +
{{tip|
 +
Instead of starting KDevelop by using the ''start3app'' script as ''kde-devel'' user, you can also use the KDE run dialog ''(Alt+F2)'' to start KDevelop:
 +
 
 +
[[Image:Minicli.png]]
 +
 
 +
This starts KDevelop as ''kde-devel'' user but uses the environment variables of the normal user, just like the ''start3app'' script does.
 +
}}
 +
-->
 +
 
 +
===== TroubleShooting =====
 +
 
 +
'''Symptome:''' kdevelop says "cannot talk to klauncher". You cannot open a file.
 +
 
 +
'''Solution:''' add your KDE library path to LD_LIBRARY_PATH, e.g.:
 +
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/opt/kde3/lib
 +
 
 +
==== Setting up KDevelop ====
 +
 
 +
Now that KDevelop has started, you need to adjust a few settings. Go to ''Settings->Configure KDevelop...->Documentation'' for this. Remove all entries that are not relevant to KDE 4 coding.
 +
 
 +
{{note|Although environment variables like $HOME are used in this section, you should replace them with real paths because KDevelop does not resolve environment variables.}}
 +
 
 +
Optionally, you can add the kdelibs API documentation. You must [[Getting_Started/Build/KDE4#Generating_local_API_documentation|create it beforehand]]. Then add the documentation by clicking ''Add...''. In this dialog, use the following settings:
 +
* ''Type'': Doxygen Documentation Collection (needs to be set first)
 +
* ''Location'': {{path|$KDE_SRC/KDE/kdelibs/kdelibs-apidocs/index.html}}
 +
 
 +
Now add the Qt API documentation, which also must be [[Getting_Started/Build/KDE4/Prerequisites#Generating_local_API_documentation|created beforehand]], using the following settings:
 +
* ''Type'': Qt Documentation Collection (needs to be set first)
 +
* ''Location'': {{path|$HOME/qt-copy/doc/html/qt.dcf}}
 +
 
 +
After you have added kdelibs and Qt API documentation, make sure all checkboxes (''TOC'',''Index'' and ''Search'') are enabled. Then, go to the ''Full Text Search'' tab and make sure the paths to the ''htdig'', ''htmerge'' and ''htsearch'' executables are correct. You can then close the settings dialog.
 +
 
 +
Now it is time to open the project you want to work on by clicking ''Project->Open Project...''. The project files are located in the build directory. For example, if you want to work on Konsole, you need to open {{path|$KDE_BUILD/KDE/kdebase/apps/konsole/konsole.kdevelop}}. You now need to adjust a few project-specific settings in ''Project->Project Options''. You need to do this every time you start to work on a different project.
 +
 
 +
{{note|
 +
Sometimes, a KDevelop project file is not present for the folder you want to work on.
 +
 
 +
This can have several reasons, it depends on how the CMake files are written. Usually, CMake files which have a <tt>project(projectname)</tt> statement in them should work fine. Once you are familiar enough with CMake, you can try adding the statement.
 +
 
 +
A workaround for this is to simply use the KDevelop project file of the parent folder, or even higher. In this case, you need to use the <tt>Make Active Directory</tt> entry in the context menu of the <tt>File Selector</tt> sidetab. With this, you can ignore the other unwanted folders when building and installing.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
* ''C++ Support->Code Completion''
 +
:Here you need to add code completion databases for Qt and kdelibs, and more if you like, for example you might need a database for ''kdepimlibs'' when working on ''kdepim''.
 +
 
 +
:For kdelibs, click the ''Add...'' button and choose ''KDevelop Custom Directory PCS Importer'', then add your KDE include directory ({{path|$HOME/kde/include}}) to the list and proceed. You can use the file selection dialog and the ''Add'' button to add it.
 +
 
 +
:Now, add the database for Qt 4 by selecting ''KDevelop Qt4 PCS Importer'' this time. You need to select the Qt 4 include directory, which is {{path|$HOME/qt-copy/include}}.
 +
 
 +
{{note|The Qt4 PCS Importer is only needed if you didn't install Qt4, i.e. you use it directly from the build directory. The drawback of using the Qt4 importer is that it doesn't show progress and the application seems to hang while it imports. The alternative is to use the Custom Directory PCS Importer for this too}}
 +
 
 +
* ''C++ Support->Qt Options''
 +
:Check ''Enable Qt options'' and choose Qt4 as your version. Set the ''QMake Binary'' path to {{path|$HOME/qt-copy/bin/qmake}}. Then choose ''Qt 4 style'' as ''Qt include syntax''. Use {{path|$HOME/qt-copy/bin/designer}} as ''Designer Binary''. Make sure to use the ''Change Plugin Paths'' dialog to add the plugin directory from KDE so you see the KDE widgets when designer is started. To do this add {{path|$HOME/kde/lib/kde4/plugins}} to the lineedit and then click the ''Add'' button.
 +
 
 +
* ''Run Options''
 +
:Make sure you use the correct binary as ''Executable''. For example, if you want to run Konsole, this is {{path|$KDE_BUILD/KDE/kdebase/apps/konsole/src/konsole}}. You should add ''--nofork'' to the ''Debug Arguments'' or debugging some applications like ''KMail'' will not work at all.
 +
 
 +
:Because the ''start3app'' functions changes some environment variables, you need to change them back here so the KDE 4 applications can be run without problems from within KDevelop.
 +
:For some applications, like Konsole, this is not strictly necessary, but others like KMail will crash if you do not change this.
 +
:Simply click the ''Add / Copy'' button to add new environment variables. You will need the following, which are the same as in your [[Getting_Started/Increased_Productivity_in_KDE4_with_Scripts/.bashrc|{{path|.bashrc}}]]:
 +
 
 +
:{| border="1"
 +
|-
 +
! Name
 +
! Value
 +
|-
 +
| KDEHOME
 +
| $HOME/.kde4
 +
|-
 +
| PATH
 +
| $KDEDIR/bin:$QTDIR/bin:/usr/local/bin:$PATH
 +
|-
 +
| LD_LIBRARY_PATH
 +
| $KDEDIR/lib:$QTDIR/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
 +
|-
 +
| KDETMP
 +
| /tmp/$USER-kde4
 +
|-
 +
| KDEVARTMP
 +
| /var/tmp/$USER-kde4
 +
|-
 +
| KDEDIR
 +
| $HOME/kde
 +
|-
 +
| KDEDIRS
 +
| $KDEDIR
 +
|-
 +
| LD_BIND_NOW
 +
| 42
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
* ''Build Options->Build''
 +
:Make sure the correct build directory is selected. Again, for Konsole, this would be {{path|$KDE_BUILD/KDE/kdebase/apps/konsole}}.
 +
 
 +
* ''Build Options->Make''
 +
:You might want to check ''Abort on first error''. You also might want to add ''VERBOSE='' or ''VERBOSE=1'' to ''Additional make options'' to control the level of verbosity for the build process.
 +
 
 +
:If you have more than one processor or if you have access to an icecream cluster, you might want to check the ''Run multiple jobs'' option and set the ''Number of simultaneous jobs'' to the number of available processors. This increases the compile speed. It is the same as the <tt>-j</tt> option for ''make''.
 +
 
 +
* ''Formatting''
 +
:You should set all options here to match the coding style of the project you are working on.
 +
 
 +
* ''CTags->General''
 +
:You need to correctly set the ''Path to ctags binary'', which is {{path|/usr/bin/ctags}} on Debian-based systems.
 +
 
 +
:You probably want to enable the <tt>When more than one hit, go directly to the first</tt> option.
 +
 
 +
Now you have finished adjusting your project-specific settings. Now you should remove some plugins you do not need, in ''Settings->Configure Plugins...''. I for example disable the following plugins:
 +
 
 +
<small>Abbreviation Expansion, Code Snippets, Doxygen Support, Embedded Konsole, File Tree, '''Final Packaging Support''', "Open with" Menu Addon, QuickOpen, Regular Expression Tester, Scripting, '''Security Checker''', Shell Filtering and Insertion, Text Structure and Tools Menu Addition.</small>
 +
 
 +
You should at least disable the bold ones.
 +
 
 +
Now, open any source file if none is open already. This will enable the ''Settings->Configure Editor...'' entry, where you need to set the tab options to match the tab style used by the project you are working on. The important settings are:
 +
* ''Appearance->Borders->Show line numbers'': Should be checked.
 +
* ''Appearance->Borders->Show icon border'': Should be checked.
 +
* ''Editing->Tabulators''
 +
* ''Editing->Static Word Wrap->Show marker'': Should be checked
 +
* ''Indentation->Automatic Indentation->Indentation mode'': Should be ''C Style''
 +
* ''Indentation'' in general
 +
 
 +
In the mainwindow, click the ''CTags'' tab on the bottom tabbar, then click the ''Regenerate'' button to create a CTags database for easier source code navigation.
 +
 
 +
Now you have completed all essential configuration, congratulations!
 +
 
 +
==== Using KDevelop ====
 +
 
 +
Refer to the [http://docs.kde.org/development/en/kdevelop/kdevelop/ KDevelop manual] for general help using KDevelop. The following section will only deal with special cases for KDE 4.
 +
 
 +
===== Debugging =====
 +
 
 +
KDE apps have many symbols, which means that you need a lot of memory to get a decent loading times for debugging. To quote a GDB developer: "I would be reluctant to debug KDE on something with <1GB RAM."
 +
If the stepping function of the debugger is slow for you, try the following tips:
 +
* Hide local variables. The <tt>Locals</tt> part of the variable tab on the left causes a big slowdown when stepping if you have many local variables. Simple collapse the <tt>Locals</tt> part of the tree, the local variables are then not updated every step. You can still examine variables by using the <tt>Evaluate expression</tt> function.
 +
* Use the patch at http://bugs.kde.org/show_bug.cgi?id=143977. It prevents the update of the framestack widget at each step, speeding up stepping considerably. The patch introduces some minor glitches, which is why it is not yet commited.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|
 +
KDevelop does not yet support modifing the CMake build system. This means you can not use KDevelop to add or remove files from the project or to change any other aspect of your project's build process.
 +
 
 +
You need to modify the CMake files by hand and then rerun <tt>cmakekde</tt> instead. Read the [[Development/Tutorials/CMake|CMake tutorial]] to learn how to do this.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{tip|When you work on libraries, you first need to install them before you can test or debug your changes.
 +
Since this is cumbersome and time consuming, you should create symlinks ''(ln -s)'' pointing from the build directory to the installation directory for all affected libraries.
 +
 
 +
Often, even simple programs use libraries internally, for example the settings dialog of Konsole is really a library.}}
 +
 
 +
=== Eclipse ===
 +
 
 +
    {|align="right"
 +
    |[[image:Snapshot-eclipse.png|right|thumb|200px|KDE4's ktimetracker loaded as eclipse project]]
 +
    |}
 +
This describes how to use Eclipse to develop KDE 4 applications. It has been tested with Eclipse Ganymed and SUSE Linux 11.1 but should work same or similar with every combination. As an example KDE application we use [http://userbase.kde.org/ktimetracker ktimetracker] from the kdepim module, other applications short work analog.
 +
 
 +
Using this description you will be able to
 +
* update your working copy of KDE source code using the command svn
 +
* build your KDE module using cmake
 +
* build your KDE application from within eclipse using make
 +
* compile and run your application with one click from eclipse
 +
* get auto-completion when editing KDE source code
 +
* have an overview and navigation about your classes within eclipse
 +
* have call trees for your functions
 +
 
 +
==== Set up Eclipse with KDE  ====
 +
 
 +
* Check your requirements
 +
: Trying with a virtual machine [[User:Tstaerk|I]] had problems starting Eclipse with less than 1 GB RAM. After assigning 3 GB RAM to my virtual machine, Eclipse finally started.
 +
 
 +
* Install eclipse
 +
 
 +
: Download Eclipse IDE for C/C++ developers from http://www.eclipse.org. We unpack it to /home/user/eclipse.
 +
 
 +
* Install the CDT
 +
 
 +
: Download the Eclipse IDE for C/C++ Developers (68 MB) from http://www.eclipse.org/cdt/ and unpack it into your eclipse folder, in our case /home/user/eclipse.
 +
 
 +
* Download kdepim
 +
 
 +
: As said, we use kdepim as example here. So, download ("checkout") kdepim using svn, e.g. as anonymous:
 +
svn co svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdepim
 +
: We assume you checked out into /home/user/kdepim.
 +
 
 +
* Compile kdepim
 +
 
 +
: Compile kdepim so the usual makefiles are present for all kdepim applications. If you have problems doing this, follow our [[Getting Started/Build/KDE4|build instructions]]
 +
 
 +
* Import your project into eclipse
 +
 
 +
: Surprise: To import your project, you should not use "File -&gt; Import". Rather do: File -> New -> C++ Project -> Makefile project -> Empty Project -> un-tag "use default location" -> choose /home/user/kdepim/ktimetracker. Call it "ktimetracker".
 +
 
 +
* Build your project
 +
: Make sure Project -> Properties -> C/C++ Build -> Builder Settings -> Build location -> Build directory is set correctly.
 +
: Choose Project -> Build Project
 +
 
 +
* Run the project
 +
: Choose Project -> Properties -> Run/Debug Settings -> New. As project, enter ''ktimetracker'', as C/C++ Application, enter /home/user/kdepim/ktimetracker/ktimetracker. Choose Apply -> Ok -> Ok. Now you can click on the "Run" button and start it.
 +
 
 +
==== Know-How ====
 +
 
 +
===== Custom builders =====
 +
 
 +
If you want to integrate the cmake build step into your build toolchain, you will need to
 +
* create a custom ''builder'' like this:
 +
cat >/bin/eclipsebuild<<EOF
 +
cmake . && make -j4 && make install
 +
EOF
 +
chmod 777 /bin/eclipsebuild
 +
 
 +
* Add your builder
 +
: Choose Project -> Properties -> Builders. Un-tag all existing builders. Click "new" -> Program -> (name it "Builder for KDE"). -> Location: /bin/eclipsebuild -> Working directory /home/user/workspace/myproject1/kdepim.
 +
 
 +
* Build
 +
: Now you can build your project. Every time after you restarted eclipse, choose myproject1 -> Project -> Properties -> C/C++ Build -> Ok -> Project -> Build.
 +
 
 +
===== Revert what eclipse did =====
 +
 
 +
To revert what eclipse did to your project simply run
 +
rm -rf .externalToolBuilders/ .project .cproject
 +
 
 +
===== Why Subversion does not work =====
 +
 
 +
When using eclipse's svn plugin and building a KDE program, you will get error messages complaining that your svn binary is too old. If you want to try and change this, here's how you get to that error:
 +
 
 +
* Install the subversion plug-ins
 +
: Help -> Software Updates -> Available Software -> Add Site -> http://download.eclipse.org/technology/subversive/0.7/update-site/ -> Add Site -> http://www.polarion.org/projects/subversive/download/eclipse/2.0/update-site/
 +
 
 +
: Now add it: Subversive Site -> Subversive SVN Team Provider Plugin
 +
 
 +
: Subversive SVN Connectors Site -> Subversive SVN Connectors -> SVNKit 1.3.0 Implementation (Optional)
 +
 
 +
* Click on Install
 +
 
 +
* Restart eclipse
 +
 
 +
* Import your KDE module
 +
: Choose File -> New -> Other -> SVN -> Project from SVN -> https://svn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdepim -> Check out as project configured using the New Project Wizard -> C++ Project -> Makefile Project -> Empty Project. As name, we choose kdepim5 -> Finish
 +
 
 +
* Set cmake as build environment
 +
: Choose Project -> Properties -> C/C++ Build -> Builder Settings. Un-tag "use default build command", set "cmake" instead. Choose Project -> Properties -> C/C++ Build -> Behavior. Replace "all" by ".".
 +
 
 +
==== See also ====
 +
 
 +
* http://javathreads.de/2008/07/subversion-unter-eclipse-ganymede-konfigurieren/
 +
* http://nienhueser.de/blog/?p=19
 +
 
 +
=== QtCreator ===
 +
This describes how to use QtCreator to develop KDE 4 applications. It has been tested with QtCreator 1.2.80 and SUSE Linux 11.1 but should work same or similar with every combination. As an example KDE application we use [http://userbase.kde.org/ktimetracker ktimetracker] from the kdepim module, other applications should work same or similar.
 +
 
 +
==== Load an existing project ====
 +
As discussed here we use ktimetracker as example project.
 +
* Import the CMakeLists.txt file
 +
File -> Open -> kdepim/CMakeLists.txt.
 +
* Configure qtcreator to build only ktimetracker
 +
Projects -> ktimetracker -> build settings -> Add a configuration ktimetracker.
 +
 
 +
As build directory choose kdepim. As arguments for cmake use e.g.
 +
. -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local -DLIB_SUFFIX=64 -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=debugfull
 +
 
 +
==== Start a KDE project ====
 +
To start a new project you need to tell qtcreator to use the KDE libraries when building. So, choose File -> New... and create your project. We will call it ''yourproject'' here. To be able to use KDE's libraries, go to your home directory, cd into ''yourproject'' and modify ''yourproject.pro''. Add a line
 +
LIBS += -lkdeui
 +
 
 +
[[Category:KDE4]]

Revision as of 19:31, 27 March 2010


Contents

Getting_Started/Set up KDE 4 for development

Configuração para desenvolvimento do KDE 4
Tutorial Series   Começando
Previous   Construindo o KDE 4
What's Next   Outros tópicos de desenvolvimento
Further Reading   n/a
noframe
 
Note
Esta página presume que você tenha construído kdelibs, kdepimlibs, e kdebase de acordo com estas instruções

Iniciando KDE 4 apps & sessões

Como você começa o desenvolvimento para o KDE 4, geralmente há três opções disponíveis para você:

As três opções são descritas nas seções seguintes.

noframe
 
Note
Se você obter erros ao executar qualquer aplicativo kde4, tais como:
 Qt: erro de gestão de sessão: Não foi possível abrir o soquete de rede 
 QMutex::lock: Deadlock detectado na linha -1241241936 
ou quando você executar startkde e ficar emperrado, leia este artigo para a solução.

Iniciando KDE 4 apps

Usando o shell normal com sux

Para este método, é necessária a ferramenta sux (http://fgouget.free.fr/sux/sux-readme.shtml). sux está disponível na maioria das distribuições. De outro modo você pode contar com o método abaixo shell normal sem sux. sux permite que você mude para outro usuário com um gerenciamento implícito dos detalhes de encaminhamento de X (autenticação e exportação de DISPLAY) de uma forma clara e simples.

Fazer o login, tipo sux - kde-devel

Todas as variáveis de ambiente e todo o resto deve ser configurado corretamente pelo seu.bashrc. Para iniciar uma aplicação, basta digitar seu nome, por exemplo kwrite

noframe
 
Note
Se você receber erros sobre mimetypes ausentes ou algo parecido, tente o seguinte:
  • execute unset XDG_DATA_DIRS ; kbuildsycoca4

Usando o shell normal sem sux

O método mais simples para iniciar aplicativos do KDE 4 é usando su para logar como usuário kde-devel e, em seguida, iniciar qualquer aplicativo do KDE 4 a partir da linha de comando. Fazer o login, tipo

su - kde-devel

e, em seguida, digitar sua senha export DISPLAY=:0

noframe
 
Note
Exporting the DISPLAY variable is necessary so that the KDE 4 applications appear on your normal KDE 3 desktop.

All environment variables and everything else should be set up correctly by your .bashrc. To start an application, simply type it's name; for example kwrite

noframe
 
Note
If you get errors about missing mimetypes or such, try the following:
  • run unset XDG_DATA_DIRS ; kbuildsycoca4
noframe
 
Note
{{{1}}}

Using SSH

The simplest way to run a KDE 4 application with SSH in your current desktop environment is to get an X-aware shell prompt as the kde-devel user like this: ssh -X kde-devel@localhost Now you can launch KDE apps as usual, for example: kwrite The two lines can be conveniently combined: ssh -X kde-devel@localhost kwrite

noframe
 
Note
If this gives you any errors, try the troubleshooting tips from the section above.
Passwordless login

Before anything serious can be done using this method, a passwordless login needs to be set up. To start, run the following command as the regular desktop user: ssh-keygen -t rsa Hit enter three times to accept the path of ~/.ssh/id_rsa and an empty passphrase. Now, copy the single line in ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub that's printed after running this command: cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub After that line is copied, ssh back into the kde-devel user and put the copied line in the file $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys: ssh -X kde-devel@localhost $HOME/kde/bin/kwrite \

 $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys

Paste in the line, save the file, and quit KWrite.

Next make sure $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys has the correct permissions: ssh kde-devel@localhost chmod og-xrw ~kde-devel/.ssh/authorized_keys Now try running KWrite again with the same SSH command; you shouldn't have to enter a password anymore: ssh -X kde-devel@localhost $HOME/kde/bin/kwrite

noframe
 
Warning
Using a passwordless SSH login has certain security risks, so make sure you protect your ~/.ssh/id_rsa file by restricting access to it with chmod og-xrw ~/.ssh/id_rsa(although the file should have these permissions when it is created)


The SSH desktop file

If you want to be able to launch apps more easily than running them with an SSH command from the command line, one way is to create .desktop files that ssh into the other account.

noframe
 
Note
This will only be useful if your desktop environment supports .desktop files, but at least KDE and GNOME do.

You can start with an existing .desktop file as a template (like one from your desktop) or you can make one from scratch. The main idea is to prefix the command being run with this string: ssh -X kde-devel@localhost $HOME/kde/bin/

A simple .desktop file that runs KWrite would have the following contents:

[Desktop Entry] Categories=Qt;KDE;TextEditor; Comment= DocPath=kwrite/index.html Encoding=UTF-8 Exec=ssh -X kde-devel@localhost /home/kde-devel/kde/bin/kwrite %U GenericName=Text Editor Icon=kwrite InitialPreference=8 MimeType=text/plain Name=KWrite (kde-devel) Path= StartupNotify=false Terminal=false TerminalOptions= Type=Application X-DBUS-StartupType=Multi X-DCOP-ServiceType=non X-KDE-StartupNotify=true X-KDE-SubstituteUID=false X-KDE-Username=

Ktip.png
 
Tip
Apps launched using SSH like this don't trigger the correct launch responses, so you probably want to disable "launch feedback" for your .desktop files


noframe
 
Note
In order to create a .desktop file for a KDE 4 app by using this pattern, the app's package will have to have been installed into ~/kde/bin using the cmakekde command

Launching KDE 4 sessions

Nested KDE 4 session

Nested

Instead of using a full-blown new virtual X for developing software you can use Xephyr to embed your KDE 4 session into your working KDE 3 or other X11 environment.

You can also do this with xnest, but as xnest cannot handle extensions like Render many people prefer Xephyr.

If you want to get a minimal KDE session up and running, just launch Xephyr (available in Kubuntu as xserver-xephyr; Gentoo users compile x11-base/xorg-server with USE="kdrive"):

Xephyr :1 -extension GLX &

You can now launch KDE:

su - $USER export DISPLAY=:1 /path/to/kde4/bin/startkde-modified &

startkde-modified is a copy of the startkde-script which includes the following lines on the top:

export KDEDIR=`kde4-config --prefix` export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$KDEDIR/lib export PATH=$KDEDIR/bin/:$PATH export KDEHOME=~/.kde4

You can also use Xephyr with KDM via the Xdmcp protocol and simply a new KDE 4 session to KDM.

On Kubuntu, you can enable it by changing

[Xdmcp]

  1. Whether KDM should listen to incoming XDMCP requests.
  2. Default is true

Enable=false

in /etc/kde3/kdm/kdmrc to

[Xdmcp]

  1. Whether KDM should listen to incoming XDMCP requests.
  2. Default is true

Enable=true

and adjust your /etc/kde3/kdm/Xaccess to allow your local machine access. Additionally you should make sure to set up a port blocking policy on all external interfaces for the Xdmcp port if you are doing this on a laptop or a PC in an untrusted environment.

If you are done, simply launch Xephyr:

Xephyr -query localhost :1 -host-cursor -screen 1024x768&

where -host-cursor tries to reuse the host's cursor and -screen sets the screen dimensions.

Note: If you get lots of refused connection errors, you might want to use the -ac option of Xephyr. For example:

Xephyr -ac :1&

Another option to try if you get lots of refused connection errors is you may need to grant assess to your kde-devel user to your X server. As root or using sudo execute:

xhost +local:kde-devel

If you do not have Xephyr, you can also use Xnest:

Xnest -ac :1& export DISPLAY=:1



noframe
 
This section needs improvements: Please help us to

cleanup confusing sections and fix sections which contain a todo


Sping 00:25, 9 April 2007 (CEST)

I use this for my start script nested_kde4.sh:

#! /bin/bash
NESTED_KDE_DISPLAY_BACKUP=$DISPLAY
export DISPLAY=:0
Xephyr :1 -screen 1024x768 &
export DISPLAY=:1
$HOME/kde/bin/startkde-modified &
export DISPLAY=${NESTED_KDE_DISPLAY_BACKUP}

If you run into

"Call to lnusertemp failed (temporary directories full?).
 Check your installation."

try this:

mkdir /var/tmp/kde-devel-kde4

The above code assumes you work with user kde-devel.

noframe
 
Note
In most cases you have to replace startkde-modified with startkde

Solitary KDE 4 session

Solitary

To run a full KDE 4 desktop environment session, you can either start it from the command line as you normally would, with something like this:

X :1 & export DISPLAY=:1
startkde
noframe
 
Note
If the X server refuses the connection saying something like: Xlib: connection to ":1.0" refused by server, try X -ac :1 instead.

or you can can add it to your login manager. If you are using KDM (or a compatible login manager) this is done by creating a .desktop file in either `kde-config --prefix`/share/apps/kdm/sessions/ or in /usr/share/xsessions/. The easiest thing to do is to copy an existing kde.desktop file and name it kde4.desktop. Open this new .desktop file in a text editor and change the Exec, TryExec and Name entries to look something like this:

Exec=$HOME/kde/bin/startkde TryExec=$HOME/kde/bin/startkde Name=KDE4

Replace $HOME/kde in the example above with the prefix you are installing KDE4 into.

After restarting the login manager (Alt+e in KDM) this new entry should appear in the sessions menu.

You might have to edit your startkde scripts, ie: change

this kdehome=$HOME/.kde to this kdehome=$HOME/.kde4 or paste this export KDEDIR=`kde4-config --prefix` export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$KDEDIR/lib export PATH=$KDEDIR/bin/:$PATH export KDEHOME=~/.kde4 on top.

noframe
 
Note
You should have path to 'qdbus' program (usually it is $QTDIR/bin) in your $PATH to login successfully. If it is not there, you'll get an error message "Could not start DBus. Check your installation."

Development tasks

KDevelop

This section will explain how to use KDevelop 3.4 to develop KDE 4 applications. If you have any questions, corrections or rants about this section, please post them on the discussion page.

Prerequisites

You need at least KDevelop 3.4 for this, which is still a KDE 3 application. Versions lower than 3.4 do not have Qt 4 support among other things. The KDE 4 version of KDevelop is not yet ready for serious development. You can get KDevelop at the KDevelop homepage. Make sure you install KDevelop like all other KDE 3 applications, not with your kde-devel user.

You also need the lastest GDB version, which is currently 6.6.0. Note that the GDB version which is shipped with openSuse 10.3 is broken, it constantly crashes when examining variables (which KDevelop does automatically). Use the GDB version from this repository instead.

You need to have the kdelibs API documentation locally, which is described in the build instructions.

You also need ctags, htdig, htmerge and htsearch. valgrind and callgrind can also be useful.

Be sure you followed the steps in the KDE 4 build instructions and have a working KDE 4 environment. Make sure simple KDE 4 applications like Konsole or KWrite can be started from the command line of the kde-devel user without problems.

The following steps are all done with the kde-devel user. You need to login as that user by typing

su - kde-devel

Setting up the environment

KDevelop has no native support for CMake projects. Fortunately, CMake has the ability to generate KDevelop project files itself. In order to do this, you need to pass the -GKDevelop3 flag to the cmake command. This tells CMake to generate project files for KDevelop alongside the normal makefiles. The best way to do this is to modify your cmakekde function in your .bashrc. Just change cmake $srcFolder -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=$KDEDIR \ -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=debugfull&& \ make && \ make install; to cmake $srcFolder -GKDevelop3 -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=$KDEDIR \ -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=debugfull&& \ make && \ make install;

After you have done that, re-login so that the changes to the .bashrc file take effect. Then you need to rerun cmakekde in the (root) build directory of the project you want to work on with KDevelop (if you didn't use -GKDevelop3 on the building step). For example, if you want to work on Konsole, which lives in kdebase, you need to run cmakekde in the $KDE_BUILD/KDE/kdebase directory. This unfortunately completely rebuilds everything, but only once when you change the generator.

Since all environment variables of the kde-devel user are KDE 4 specific, these need to be set back to match your KDE 3 environment before starting KDevelop. A simple way to do this is to add the following function to your .bashrc:

function start3app {

 mkdir -p /tmp/$USER-kde
 export PATH=/opt/kde3/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/games 
 export LD_LIBRARY_PATH= 
 export KDETMP=/tmp/$USER-kde 
 export KDEVARTMP=/var/tmp/$USER-kde 
 export KDEHOME=$HOME/.kde 
 export KDEDIR=/usr 
 export KDEDIRS=$KDEDIR 
 export DISPLAY=:0 
 eval "$@"
 source $HOME/.bashrc   #Reset environment variables again

}

The PATH and LD_LIBRARY_PATH variables are taken from the KDE 3 user, and they may be different on your system. Type echo $PATH and echo $LD_LIBRARY_PATH as normal KDE 3 user to get these values. The above function assumes that KDE 3 is installed in the /usr prefix, as it is the case on Debian-based systems. If your KDE 3 is installed to a different prefix, you need to change the line setting KDEDIR accordingly. Here's an example how you find out your KDE installation prefix; in this example it is /opt/kde3:

kde-config --prefix /opt/kde3

Now you should be able to start KDevelop by typing start3app kdevelop. Do that now.

Ktip.png
 
Tip
You can start any KDE 3 application with the start3app function. Useful candidates include Kompare and kdesvn. However, you can not start KDbg this way to debug KDE 4 applications, since then the environment variables for the debugged application are wrong.


TroubleShooting

Symptome: kdevelop says "cannot talk to klauncher". You cannot open a file.

Solution: add your KDE library path to LD_LIBRARY_PATH, e.g.:

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/opt/kde3/lib

Setting up KDevelop

Now that KDevelop has started, you need to adjust a few settings. Go to Settings->Configure KDevelop...->Documentation for this. Remove all entries that are not relevant to KDE 4 coding.

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Note
Although environment variables like $HOME are used in this section, you should replace them with real paths because KDevelop does not resolve environment variables.

Optionally, you can add the kdelibs API documentation. You must create it beforehand. Then add the documentation by clicking Add.... In this dialog, use the following settings:

  • Type: Doxygen Documentation Collection (needs to be set first)
  • Location: $KDE_SRC/KDE/kdelibs/kdelibs-apidocs/index.html

Now add the Qt API documentation, which also must be created beforehand, using the following settings:

  • Type: Qt Documentation Collection (needs to be set first)
  • Location: $HOME/qt-copy/doc/html/qt.dcf

After you have added kdelibs and Qt API documentation, make sure all checkboxes (TOC,Index and Search) are enabled. Then, go to the Full Text Search tab and make sure the paths to the htdig, htmerge and htsearch executables are correct. You can then close the settings dialog.

Now it is time to open the project you want to work on by clicking Project->Open Project.... The project files are located in the build directory. For example, if you want to work on Konsole, you need to open $KDE_BUILD/KDE/kdebase/apps/konsole/konsole.kdevelop. You now need to adjust a few project-specific settings in Project->Project Options. You need to do this every time you start to work on a different project.

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Note
Sometimes, a KDevelop project file is not present for the folder you want to work on.

This can have several reasons, it depends on how the CMake files are written. Usually, CMake files which have a project(projectname) statement in them should work fine. Once you are familiar enough with CMake, you can try adding the statement.

A workaround for this is to simply use the KDevelop project file of the parent folder, or even higher. In this case, you need to use the Make Active Directory entry in the context menu of the File Selector sidetab. With this, you can ignore the other unwanted folders when building and installing.
  • C++ Support->Code Completion
Here you need to add code completion databases for Qt and kdelibs, and more if you like, for example you might need a database for kdepimlibs when working on kdepim.
For kdelibs, click the Add... button and choose KDevelop Custom Directory PCS Importer, then add your KDE include directory ($HOME/kde/include) to the list and proceed. You can use the file selection dialog and the Add button to add it.
Now, add the database for Qt 4 by selecting KDevelop Qt4 PCS Importer this time. You need to select the Qt 4 include directory, which is $HOME/qt-copy/include.
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Note
The Qt4 PCS Importer is only needed if you didn't install Qt4, i.e. you use it directly from the build directory. The drawback of using the Qt4 importer is that it doesn't show progress and the application seems to hang while it imports. The alternative is to use the Custom Directory PCS Importer for this too
  • C++ Support->Qt Options
Check Enable Qt options and choose Qt4 as your version. Set the QMake Binary path to $HOME/qt-copy/bin/qmake. Then choose Qt 4 style as Qt include syntax. Use $HOME/qt-copy/bin/designer as Designer Binary. Make sure to use the Change Plugin Paths dialog to add the plugin directory from KDE so you see the KDE widgets when designer is started. To do this add $HOME/kde/lib/kde4/plugins to the lineedit and then click the Add button.
  • Run Options
Make sure you use the correct binary as Executable. For example, if you want to run Konsole, this is $KDE_BUILD/KDE/kdebase/apps/konsole/src/konsole. You should add --nofork to the Debug Arguments or debugging some applications like KMail will not work at all.
Because the start3app functions changes some environment variables, you need to change them back here so the KDE 4 applications can be run without problems from within KDevelop.
For some applications, like Konsole, this is not strictly necessary, but others like KMail will crash if you do not change this.
Simply click the Add / Copy button to add new environment variables. You will need the following, which are the same as in your .bashrc:
Name Value
KDEHOME $HOME/.kde4
PATH $KDEDIR/bin:$QTDIR/bin:/usr/local/bin:$PATH
LD_LIBRARY_PATH $KDEDIR/lib:$QTDIR/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
KDETMP /tmp/$USER-kde4
KDEVARTMP /var/tmp/$USER-kde4
KDEDIR $HOME/kde
KDEDIRS $KDEDIR
LD_BIND_NOW 42


  • Build Options->Build
Make sure the correct build directory is selected. Again, for Konsole, this would be $KDE_BUILD/KDE/kdebase/apps/konsole.
  • Build Options->Make
You might want to check Abort on first error. You also might want to add VERBOSE= or VERBOSE=1 to Additional make options to control the level of verbosity for the build process.
If you have more than one processor or if you have access to an icecream cluster, you might want to check the Run multiple jobs option and set the Number of simultaneous jobs to the number of available processors. This increases the compile speed. It is the same as the -j option for make.
  • Formatting
You should set all options here to match the coding style of the project you are working on.
  • CTags->General
You need to correctly set the Path to ctags binary, which is /usr/bin/ctags on Debian-based systems.
You probably want to enable the When more than one hit, go directly to the first option.

Now you have finished adjusting your project-specific settings. Now you should remove some plugins you do not need, in Settings->Configure Plugins.... I for example disable the following plugins:

Abbreviation Expansion, Code Snippets, Doxygen Support, Embedded Konsole, File Tree, Final Packaging Support, "Open with" Menu Addon, QuickOpen, Regular Expression Tester, Scripting, Security Checker, Shell Filtering and Insertion, Text Structure and Tools Menu Addition.

You should at least disable the bold ones.

Now, open any source file if none is open already. This will enable the Settings->Configure Editor... entry, where you need to set the tab options to match the tab style used by the project you are working on. The important settings are:

  • Appearance->Borders->Show line numbers: Should be checked.
  • Appearance->Borders->Show icon border: Should be checked.
  • Editing->Tabulators
  • Editing->Static Word Wrap->Show marker: Should be checked
  • Indentation->Automatic Indentation->Indentation mode: Should be C Style
  • Indentation in general

In the mainwindow, click the CTags tab on the bottom tabbar, then click the Regenerate button to create a CTags database for easier source code navigation.

Now you have completed all essential configuration, congratulations!

Using KDevelop

Refer to the KDevelop manual for general help using KDevelop. The following section will only deal with special cases for KDE 4.

Debugging

KDE apps have many symbols, which means that you need a lot of memory to get a decent loading times for debugging. To quote a GDB developer: "I would be reluctant to debug KDE on something with <1GB RAM." If the stepping function of the debugger is slow for you, try the following tips:

  • Hide local variables. The Locals part of the variable tab on the left causes a big slowdown when stepping if you have many local variables. Simple collapse the Locals part of the tree, the local variables are then not updated every step. You can still examine variables by using the Evaluate expression function.
  • Use the patch at http://bugs.kde.org/show_bug.cgi?id=143977. It prevents the update of the framestack widget at each step, speeding up stepping considerably. The patch introduces some minor glitches, which is why it is not yet commited.
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Note
KDevelop does not yet support modifing the CMake build system. This means you can not use KDevelop to add or remove files from the project or to change any other aspect of your project's build process. You need to modify the CMake files by hand and then rerun cmakekde instead. Read the CMake tutorial to learn how to do this.
Ktip.png
 
Tip
When you work on libraries, you first need to install them before you can test or debug your changes.

Since this is cumbersome and time consuming, you should create symlinks (ln -s) pointing from the build directory to the installation directory for all affected libraries.

Often, even simple programs use libraries internally, for example the settings dialog of Konsole is really a library.


Eclipse

KDE4's ktimetracker loaded as eclipse project

This describes how to use Eclipse to develop KDE 4 applications. It has been tested with Eclipse Ganymed and SUSE Linux 11.1 but should work same or similar with every combination. As an example KDE application we use ktimetracker from the kdepim module, other applications short work analog.

Using this description you will be able to

  • update your working copy of KDE source code using the command svn
  • build your KDE module using cmake
  • build your KDE application from within eclipse using make
  • compile and run your application with one click from eclipse
  • get auto-completion when editing KDE source code
  • have an overview and navigation about your classes within eclipse
  • have call trees for your functions

Set up Eclipse with KDE

  • Check your requirements
Trying with a virtual machine I had problems starting Eclipse with less than 1 GB RAM. After assigning 3 GB RAM to my virtual machine, Eclipse finally started.
  • Install eclipse
Download Eclipse IDE for C/C++ developers from http://www.eclipse.org. We unpack it to /home/user/eclipse.
  • Install the CDT
Download the Eclipse IDE for C/C++ Developers (68 MB) from http://www.eclipse.org/cdt/ and unpack it into your eclipse folder, in our case /home/user/eclipse.
  • Download kdepim
As said, we use kdepim as example here. So, download ("checkout") kdepim using svn, e.g. as anonymous:
svn co svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdepim
We assume you checked out into /home/user/kdepim.
  • Compile kdepim
Compile kdepim so the usual makefiles are present for all kdepim applications. If you have problems doing this, follow our build instructions
  • Import your project into eclipse
Surprise: To import your project, you should not use "File -> Import". Rather do: File -> New -> C++ Project -> Makefile project -> Empty Project -> un-tag "use default location" -> choose /home/user/kdepim/ktimetracker. Call it "ktimetracker".
  • Build your project
Make sure Project -> Properties -> C/C++ Build -> Builder Settings -> Build location -> Build directory is set correctly.
Choose Project -> Build Project
  • Run the project
Choose Project -> Properties -> Run/Debug Settings -> New. As project, enter ktimetracker, as C/C++ Application, enter /home/user/kdepim/ktimetracker/ktimetracker. Choose Apply -> Ok -> Ok. Now you can click on the "Run" button and start it.

Know-How

Custom builders

If you want to integrate the cmake build step into your build toolchain, you will need to

  • create a custom builder like this:
cat >/bin/eclipsebuild<<EOF
cmake . && make -j4 && make install
EOF
chmod 777 /bin/eclipsebuild
  • Add your builder
Choose Project -> Properties -> Builders. Un-tag all existing builders. Click "new" -> Program -> (name it "Builder for KDE"). -> Location: /bin/eclipsebuild -> Working directory /home/user/workspace/myproject1/kdepim.
  • Build
Now you can build your project. Every time after you restarted eclipse, choose myproject1 -> Project -> Properties -> C/C++ Build -> Ok -> Project -> Build.
Revert what eclipse did

To revert what eclipse did to your project simply run

rm -rf .externalToolBuilders/ .project .cproject
Why Subversion does not work

When using eclipse's svn plugin and building a KDE program, you will get error messages complaining that your svn binary is too old. If you want to try and change this, here's how you get to that error:

  • Install the subversion plug-ins
Help -> Software Updates -> Available Software -> Add Site -> http://download.eclipse.org/technology/subversive/0.7/update-site/ -> Add Site -> http://www.polarion.org/projects/subversive/download/eclipse/2.0/update-site/
Now add it: Subversive Site -> Subversive SVN Team Provider Plugin
Subversive SVN Connectors Site -> Subversive SVN Connectors -> SVNKit 1.3.0 Implementation (Optional)
  • Click on Install
  • Restart eclipse
  • Import your KDE module
Choose File -> New -> Other -> SVN -> Project from SVN -> https://svn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdepim -> Check out as project configured using the New Project Wizard -> C++ Project -> Makefile Project -> Empty Project. As name, we choose kdepim5 -> Finish
  • Set cmake as build environment
Choose Project -> Properties -> C/C++ Build -> Builder Settings. Un-tag "use default build command", set "cmake" instead. Choose Project -> Properties -> C/C++ Build -> Behavior. Replace "all" by ".".

See also

QtCreator

This describes how to use QtCreator to develop KDE 4 applications. It has been tested with QtCreator 1.2.80 and SUSE Linux 11.1 but should work same or similar with every combination. As an example KDE application we use ktimetracker from the kdepim module, other applications should work same or similar.

Load an existing project

As discussed here we use ktimetracker as example project.

  • Import the CMakeLists.txt file

File -> Open -> kdepim/CMakeLists.txt.

  • Configure qtcreator to build only ktimetracker

Projects -> ktimetracker -> build settings -> Add a configuration ktimetracker.

As build directory choose kdepim. As arguments for cmake use e.g.

. -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local -DLIB_SUFFIX=64 -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=debugfull

Start a KDE project

To start a new project you need to tell qtcreator to use the KDE libraries when building. So, choose File -> New... and create your project. We will call it yourproject here. To be able to use KDE's libraries, go to your home directory, cd into yourproject and modify yourproject.pro. Add a line

LIBS += -lkdeui

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