Getting Started/Build/KDE4 (de)

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Template:I18n Getting Started Build KDE4

(Diese Anleitung befindet sich noch im Aufbau und ist eine Kopie des englischen Orginals. Hilf mit, es zu übersetzen und es auf dem aktuellen Stand zu halten!)

Contents

Übersicht

Diese Anleitung zeigt einen Weg, um KDE auf Linux und BSD-Systemen zu komplieren und laufen zu lassen. Als Grundlage verwenden wir die Shell. Wenn Sie sich für andere Systeme wie etwa Solaris, MacOS oder Microsoft Windows ersetzen, besuchen Sie bitte Build und folgen Sie den Links am Ende der Seite.

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Warning
Stellen Sie sich auf verstärkt auftretende Buildprobleme an Montagen ein, da die Entwickler an diesem Wochentag kritische Änderungen vornehmen. Das Dashboard zeigt unerwartete Probleme beim Kompilieren an.


Benötigte Software

Folgendes muss installiert sein, um dieses Tutorial erfolgreich durchführen zu können:

  • gcc and g++ from the gcc project, preferably version 4.1 or higher
  • svn, the subversion revision control client
  • pkg-config
  • development libraries and headers for X11, OpenGL (mesa-common-dev and libglu1-mesa-dev), libjpeg, libpng, libungif, libclucene, librdf, libxml2 and libxslt
  • the makeobj script, which is part of kdesdk. You can install it as part of kdesdk (kdesdk-scripts on Debian) or similar package, or just download it itself from WebSVN
  • the shared-mime-info package, which is the freedesktop MIME standard KDE is using now
  • boost, needed by kdebase; after compiling and/or installing boost, in order to make cmake aware about its location (FindBoost), add boost directory (the one containing include subdirectory) to CMAKE_INCLUDE_PATH or set an environment variable called BOOST_ROOT pointing to boost directory.

Weiterhin ist es zu empfehlen, folgende Software bereits installiert zu haben:

  • bash

Kubuntu

I Kubuntu 7.04 (Feisty) kann alle zum Bau der Pakete benötigte Software mit folgendem Befehl installiert werden: sudo aptitude install build-essential cdbs debhelper cmake libungif4-dev \ libxml2-dev libxslt1-dev libbz2-dev libclucene-dev librdf-dev \ shared-mime-info libgl1-mesa-dev libglu1-mesa-dev mesa-common-dev \ libxext-dev libjpeg-dev libpng-dev libsm-dev libxinerama-dev \ libxrender-dev libfontconfig-dev libboost-dev libxcursor-dev doxygen

Die manuelle Installation von Qt 4.3, CMake 2.4.6 und DBus kann durch die Installation der folgenden Pakete und ihrer Abhängigkeiten vermieden werden: sudo aptitude install libqt4-dev-kdecopy libdbus-1-dev cmake

Für eine voll funktionstüchtige apidox Umgebung wird ebenfalls zusätzliche Software benötigt: sudo aptitude install graphviz

openSUSE

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Der openSUSE build service stellt ebenfalls tagesaktuelle KDE-4-Pakete bereit, die das gesamte auf dieser Seite beschriebene Vorgehen überflüssig machen. Weitere Informationen findet man direkt im openSUSE wiki unter KDE4.

In OpenSuse können Pakete mit Hilfe von Zypper installiert werden: sudo zypper install <package-name>

In älteren SUSE-Versionen geht dies nur mit Yast: yast2 -i <packagename>

Die meisten zum Bau von KDE 4 nötigen Pakete sind: xorg-x11-devel, libxml2-devel, kdesdk3, clucene-core-devel, libjpeg-devel, liblrdf-devel, libpng-devel, libxslt-devel, Mesa-devel, giflib-devel, subversion, gcc, gcc-c++

Bereits vorkompilierte CMake-Pakete für openSUSE sind direkt verfügbar im openSUSE build service.

Ein Benutzer für die KDE 4 Entwicklung

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Note
Einige Menschen ziehen es vor, für KDE 4 einen separaten Nutzer-Account einzurichten, um nicht aus Versehen durch noch bestehende Bugs oder ähnliches Daten zu verlieren. Die Anleitung hier basiert auf der Herangehensweise.

Es ist jedoch deutlich effizienter alles mit einem einzigen Nutzer-Account zu machen. Unter Increased Productivity in KDE4 with Scripts findet man mehr Details dazu.

In diesem Fall ist die folgende Anleitung noch immer gültig, jedoch sollten die nötigen Umgebungsvariablen nicht in die .bashrc, sondern in eine separate Datei geschrieben werden, die dann bei Bedarf eingelesen wird.

Option 1: Kommandozeile

useradd -m kde-devel passwd kde-devel

Option 2: Über KControl

Anstatt der oben genannten Befehle kann man auch mit Hilfe des Nutzer-Moduls des KDE Control Centers (kcontrol) einen weiteren Nutzer einrichten.

Einrichten der Entwicklungsumgebung

Kopieren Sie die Datei ~/.bashrc von Ihrem normalen Nutzer-Account zu Ihrem neuen kde-devel-Account. Danach fügen Sie den Inhalt der Seite example .bashrc in die Datei ~kde-devel/.bashrc ein. Stellen Sie sicher, dass die Zeile alias make=makeobj auskommentiert ist falls auf Ihrem System das Programm makeobj nicht verfügbar ist. Die neue ~/.bashrc wird mit folgendem Befehl eingelesen: source ~/.bashrc

Nun haben Sie Zugriff auf Befehle wie cmakekde, die in dieser Anleitung genutzt werden. Auch wird so sichergestellt, dass alle wichtigen Umgebungsvariablen (z.B. für die Pfadangaben von Qt, KDE und CMake) richtig gesetzt sind.

Für weitere Informationen lesen Sie bitte Getting Started/Increased Productivity in KDE4 with Scripts.

Zum neuen Benutzer wechseln

Sie können sich nun als Benutzer kde-devel anmelden (der Bindestrich ist wichtig!): su - kde-devel

Der Rest dieser Anleitung geht davon aus, dass Sie alle Befehle als kde-devel ausführen.

Die Shell des Entwicklungsbenutzers

On some systems a new user is configured by default to use /bin/sh. If this is not the case on your system, you can skip this section. Using /bin/sh can be very inconvenient to work with and you may want to change it to /bin/bash or another shell.

Option 1: Als kde-devel-Benutzer

If you don't have root privileges and your system supports the changing of your own shell with the chsh application, then you could try to change your shell to /bin/bash by using: chsh -s /bin/bash kde-devel

Option 2: Als root-Benutzer

If your system comes with the usermod application you can run the following command as root: usermod -s /bin/bash.

Another option is to use the vipw application as root to safely edit your /etc/passwd. Locate 'kde-devel' in the the file. Change '/bin/sh' at the end of the line to read '/bin/bash', save your changes and exit.

The new shell will be started automatically when you log in as the kde-devel user again.

D-Bus

QtDBus and KDE are known to work with D-Bus versions 0.62, as well as 0.92 and upwards. Versions 0.60 and 0.61 may work too but are not tested. Versions 0.90 and 0.91 are known not to work. We recommend using post-1.0 release versions (at least 0.94), so consider upgrading if you haven't done so.

You may skip this section if you have a recent D-Bus version or if you don't want to upgrade.

Before running these steps in the recipe, make sure your X11 headers and libraries are available. The configure script run on line 5 should output:

Building X11 code:        yes

Das Kochrezept

Ktip.png
 
Tip
Make sure you did set up your environment correctly as described above. This is necessary for the cs and cb functions to work.


cs # 'cs' is a bash function, click here to learn more 
wget http://dbus.freedesktop.org/releases/dbus/dbus-1.0.2.tar.gz
tar -xvzf dbus-1.0.2.tar.gz
cd dbus-1.0.2/
./configure --prefix=$DBUSDIR --localstatedir=$KDEDIR/var
make
make install
dbus-uuidgen --ensure

Was hier passiert

After changing into the source directory (line 1), D-Bus source code is downloaded from freedesktop.org (line 2) and unpacked (line 3). After going into the newly created D-Bus directory (line 4), the build is set up using the supplied configure script (line 5). After building (line 6) and installing (line 7) D-Bus, we use the dbus-uuidgen tool to install a machine identification file that allows the bus to start automatically when the desktop session starts (line 8).

Note that you need write access to /var for the last two steps. If your system does not have the sudo command, you can use the su command instead, e.g. su -c "make install".

Fehlerbehebung

If you get the error makeobj: command not found you are lacking the command makeobj.

CMake

Skip this if you have CMake >=2.4.5 installed. You should be able to directly use the binary packages available on the CMake site. There are also distribution specific packages available.

Das Kochrezept

cs # 'cs' is a bash function, click Here to learn more 
wget http://www.cmake.org/files/v2.4/cmake-2.4.6.tar.gz
tar zxf cmake-2.4.6.tar.gz
mkdir cmake-build
cd cmake-build 
../cmake-2.4.6/bootstrap
make
sudo make install

Was hier passiert

First, we go back to the kde-devel user's source directory (line 1), get the CMake sources (line 2) and unpack them (line 3). We create a directory to build CMake in (line 4) and go into it (line 5). We then run the CMake bootstrap script to set up the CMake build (line 6), then make (line 7) and install it (line 8) using the root user.

If your system does not have the sudo command, you can instead do su -c "make install".

Qt

Next we need to get the Qt4 that is in KDE's source repository. KDE is guaranteed to build against any Qt 4.3. Qt 4.2 and earlier are not supported and will not work. Qt 4.3 has been released only recently, so your distribution probably doesn't have packages for it yet (known exceptions: Kubuntu, openSUSE). You should use the copy in the KDE Subversion servers.

Das Kochrezept

cd
svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/qt-copy
cd qt-copy
./apply_patches
./configure -qt-gif -no-exceptions -debug -fast \
 -prefix $QTDIR -qdbus -pch -nomake examples \
 -nomake demos
make -j2
# make install: only if QTDIR is not the current directory!
make install

Was hier passiert

We switch back to the kde-devel user's home directory (line 1) and download the source code using subversion (svn) from KDE's repository (line 2). After changing into the resulting qt-copy directory (line 3), we run a script that manages the patches that come with qt-copy (line 4).

Once the patches have been applied, we then set up the build using the configure script (line 5-7). The various command line options used are explained in the qt-copy/README.qt-copy file. Finally, we build the minimal requirements for KDE (line 8) and install (line 9-10) Qt. If you want all the example and demo applications, you can either build them individually or simply do a make from the qt-copy directory.

Note that the installation does not require root as it installs Qt locally into $QTDIR. Anyway, installation is only needed if $QTDIR differs from $HOME/qt-copy, which is not the case if you have exactly followed the instructions.

Fehlerbebung

If you get "error: X11/Xlib.h: No such file or directory", install the devel package of xorg (the actual name may vary between operating systems, for example it is xorg-dev on Ubuntu based systems such as Kubuntu).

If you get an error in the configure step about missing defines, check the value of $QMAKESPEC. Some distributions set this to point directly to the system-installed Qt. If unset QMAKESPEC solves the problem, you probably want to add it to the ~/.bashrc script.

If you get an error ".pch/debug-shared/QtCore", this is because Qt-4.3 enables precompiled headers if your gcc supports it, but for some reason it doesn't work for you. If you use distcc, configure qt with -no-pch. If you use icecream, update to the latest icecream from svn trunk.

Try running any Qt program, like assistant. If it crashes in QSpanData::adjustSpanMethods, then your problem is the oxygen style. Try removing lib/kde4/plugins/styles/kstyle-oxygen.so and lib/kde4/plugins/styles/oxygen.so if they exist in the KDE install prefix.

Strigi

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Warning
If you have jumped to this section without reading Setting Up The Environment, the recipes provided will not work. The recipes are not in error; cs and cb are not typos. Your environment needs to be set up correctly for these instructions to work for you.


The code for getting file metadata now relies on Strigi. To install Strigi you need the libraries and headers for libz, libbz2, openssl (libcrypto or libssl), libclucene (=0.9.16; version 0.9.17 does not work), and either libxml2 or libexpat.

Das Kochrezept

cs # cs is not a typo
svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/kdesupport/strigi
cd strigi
cmakekde

Was hier passiert

We change to the base source directory (line 1). We download the sources for Strigi using subversion (line 2), go into the new ~/src/strigi directory (line 3), and commence the build (line 4). This will leave us in the strigi build directory after the build is completed.

Fehlerbehebung

If you get

CMake Error: This project requires some variables to be set,
and cmake can not find them.
Please set the following variables:
LIBXML2_INCLUDE_DIR (ADVANCED)

you should install the development package for libxml2.

Soprano

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Warning
If you have jumped to this section without reading Setting Up The Environment, the recipes provided will not work. The recipes are not in error; cs and cb are not typos. Your environment needs to be set up correctly for these instructions to work for you.


The code for getting file kmetadata relies on Soprano. To install Soprano you need the libraries and headers for librdf.

Das Kochrezept

cd $KDE_SRC
svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/kdesupport/soprano
cd soprano
cmakekde

Was hier passiert

We change to the base source directory (line 1). We download the sources for Soprano using subversion (line 2), go into the new ~/src/soprano directory (line 3), and commence the build (line 4). This will leave us in the soprano build directory after the build is completed.

Fehlerbebung

= If you get

CMake Error: Could NOT find REDLAND

then you need librdf from the Redland. If your distribution does not provide the librdf package, you can download the source there: http://download.librdf.org/source/ and build it. On Gentoo the package is called 'redland', instead of librdf.

kdelibs

With Qt4 and Strigi built, we can now move on to building KDE's base libraries. If you use the aforementioned .bashrc this is where those new functions come in handy.

Das Kochrezept

cd $KDE_SRC
mkdir KDE && cd KDE
svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdelibs
cd kdelibs
cmakekde

Was hier passiert

We change to the base source directory (line 1) then make and go into the KDE directory (line 2). We download the sources for kdelibs using subversion (line 3), go into the new ~/src/KDE/kdelibs directory (line 4), and commence the build (line 5). This will leave us in the kdelibs build directory after the build is completed.

Ktip.png
 
Tip
There might be missing dependencies on your system! They are easily overlooked in the output of cmakekde. You might want to do a cmake $KDE_SRC/KDE/MODULE_NAME prior to compiling any kde modules (like kdelibs, kdepimlibs etc.)


Additional KDE-specific CMake modules

There are additional CMake modules in kdelibs/cmake/modules/ that are necessary for building KDE4 applications. These will be installed for you when kdelibs itself is installed.

Fehlerbebung

If you have problems compiling kdelibs, first make sure the software in the Required Software section above is installed and works. Other possible hints include:

  • If the cmakekde command fails stating that CMake requires an out of source build directory, remove ~/src/KDE/kdelibs/CMakeCache.txt, and try again.

If cmakekde still gives the same error then try this

cd
cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=$KDEDIR \
-DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=debugfull \
-DKDE4_BUILD_TESTS=ON \
~/src/KDE/kdelibs
make
make install
  • If you received an error stating "Please create a separate build directory and run 'cmake path_to_kdelibs [options]' there.", then you need to change to your build directory before running cmakekde. (e.g cs KDE/kdelibs && cb && cmakekde)
  • If Qt wasn't found or the wrong version of Qt was found, make sure that the qmake from the Qt you need is the first qmake in the path.
  • If the problems persist, try the CMake make-option --keep-going.
  • Here you need the libungif library, otherwise you will get an error message like "Could NOT find GIF".
  • Qt-4.3 upgrade: if you get a link error in kjsembed talking about QScriptEngine, edit CMakeCache.txt in kdelibs and remove the lines that talk about QT_QTUITOOLS_LIBRARY, then type make again (that static library has a new dependency, and the cmake code that adds it needs to run).
  • if you get CMake Error: KDE Requires Qt to be built with SSL support

, install openssl-devel, and re-compile QT.

kdepimlibs

After kdelibs, but before kdebase, you need to build and install kdepimlibs.

Das Kochrezept

cs KDE # cs is not a typo
svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdepimlibs
cd kdepimlibs
cmakekde

Was hier passiert

We go into the KDE source directory (line 1), download the source code for kdepimlibs using subversion (line 2) and then go into the new ~/src/KDE/kdepimlibs directory (line 3). We then commence the build (line 4). This will leave us in the kdepimlibs build directory after the build is completed.

kdebase

You may need kdebase for some kioslaves.

cs KDE # cs is not a typo
svn checkout svn://anonsvn.kde.org/home/kde/trunk/KDE/kdebase
cd kdebase
cmakekde

Fehlerbebung

If you have troubles compiling kdebase:

  • Make sure you have the libxss headers installed. (Usually you got undefined references on xscreensaver objects if you haven't those headers)
  • which meinproc has to deliver /home/kde-devel/kde/bin/meinproc
  • if cmakekde can not find the path of kdepimlibs, edit the file $KDE_BUILD/kdebase/CMakeCache.txt and manually set KDEPIMLIBS_INCLUDE_DIR:PATH=$KDE_BUILD/kdepimlibs
  • if you get an error saying "Please set the following variables: X11_XTest_LIB (ADVANCED)", install the devel package of Xtst. On some systems, this is packaged separately from xext and called x11proto-xext-dev or libxtst-dev. You may also need to remove the CMakeCache.txt file in the build dir after installing the package.
  • the same for "X11_Xinerama_LIB (ADVANCED)" where you will need the devel package for xinerama.
  • if you get the error "Please set the following variables: FONTCONFIG_INCLUDE_DIR, FONTCONFIG_LIBRARIES (ADVANCED)", then you need to install the libfontconfig headers
  • if you get the error "CMake Error: This project requires some variables to be set, and cmake can not find them. Please set the following variables: KMETADATA_LIBRARIES", you need to install soprano from kdesupport and to rebuild kdelibs
  • if you get the error "‘XserverRegion’ does not name a type" make sure you have libxcomposite headers installed (libxcomposite-dev in ubuntu)

Lokale API-Dokumentation erstellen

Although the API documentation for KDE is available online at api.kde.org, it is sometimes useful to have it on your own disk, for example when you want to use KDevelop for browsing the documentation or when you are not able to be online all the time.

Be aware that generating the API documentation can take several hours and takes almost half a gigabyte of diskspace. The generation is handled by a script in kdelibs/doc/api, you need doxygen to be able to run it.

To build the API documentation for kdelibs, type the following:

cs KDE/kdelibs # cs is not a typo
$KDE_SRC/KDE/kdelibs/doc/api/doxygen.sh \
--doxdatadir=$KDE_SRC/KDE/kdelibs/doc/common .

Repeat for other modules as desired.

Allgemeine Fehlerbehebung

Es kann im Laufe der Zeit nach mehrmaligem Ausführen von svn up vorkommen, dass sich das Ausgabeformat einiger Werkzeuge, die in der KDE Werkzeugkette benutzt werden, ändert. Zum Beispiel werden kcfg Dateien vom kconfig_compiler gelesen, um die Konfigurationsdialoge zu generieren. Da CMake diese Veränderungen nicht erkennen kann, kann das Kompilieren fehlschlagen. Eine provisorische Lösung ist, die Regenerierung all dieser Dateien zu erzwingen:

find $KDE_SRC/kde/kdebase -name "*.kcfg" | xargs touch

Dasselbe gilt für ui Dateien wie solche, die vom Qt designer generiert werden.

Das wars!

Sie sind nun bereit, andere svn Module in derselben Weise wie kdebase zu kompilieren, KDE4 zu benutzen und zu testen, sowie Ihre eigenen Patches und Anwendungen zu schreiben.

Siehe auch die Anleitung Set up KDE 4 for development um Hilfe beim Starten von KDE4 Anwendungen sowie zur Nutzung von KDevelop zu erhalten.


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