Difference between revisions of "Development/Tutorials/Using KXmlGuiWindow"

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{{Template:I18n/Language Navigation Bar (zh_CN)|Development/Tutorials/创建主窗口}}
+
 
 
{{TutorialBrowser|
 
{{TutorialBrowser|
  
series=初学者教程|
+
series=Beginner Tutorial|
  
name=创建主窗口|
+
name=How To Use KXmlGuiWindow|
  
pre=[[Development/Tutorials/First_program (zh_CN)|教程1 - Hello World]]|
+
pre=[[Development/Tutorials/First_program|Tutorial 1 - Hello World]]|
  
next=[[Development/Tutorials/Using_KActions|教程3 - 使用KActions]]|  
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next=[[Development/Tutorials/Using_KActions|Tutorial 3 - KActions and XMLGUI]]|  
  
 
reading={{class|KXmlGuiWindow}}
 
reading={{class|KXmlGuiWindow}}
 
}}
 
}}
  
== 摘要 ==
+
==Abstract==
本教程承接上一讲[[Development/Tutorials/First_program (zh_CN)|教程1 - Hello World]] ,进一步介绍{{class|KXmlGuiWindow}}类的使用。
+
This tutorial carries on from [[Development/Tutorials/First_program|First Program Tutorial]] and will introduce the {{class|KXmlGuiWindow}} class.
  
在上一讲中,程序只是显示了一个弹出框。在本讲中,我们要让我们的程序具备更加实际功能。
+
In the previous tutorial, the program caused a dialog box to pop up but we're going to take steps towards a functioning application.
  
 
[[image:introtokdetutorial2.png|frame|center]]
 
[[image:introtokdetutorial2.png|frame|center]]
  
== 使用KXmlGuiWindow ==
+
==KXmlGuiWindow==
 +
 
 +
{{class|KXmlGuiWindow}} provides a full main window view with menubars, toolbars, a statusbar and a main area in the centre for a large widget. For example the help-menu is predefined. Most KDE applications will derive from this class as it provides an easy way to define menu and toolbar layouts through XML files (this technology is called XMLGUI). While we will not be using XMLGUI in ''this'' tutorial, we will use it in the next.
  
为了得到一个可用的KXmlGuiWindow,我们必须对它子类化。为此,我们创建两个文件:<tt>mainwindow.cpp</tt><tt>mainwindow.h</tt>,在其中保存我们的派生类代码。我们的类继承自KXmlGuiWindow,因为它使用XML来定义程序的菜单结构。
+
In order to have a useful KXmlGuiWindow, we must subclass it. So we create two files, a <tt>mainwindow.cpp</tt> and a <tt>mainwindow.h</tt> which will contain our code.
  
 
===mainwindow.h===
 
===mainwindow.h===
<code cppqt>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp-qt">
 
#ifndef MAINWINDOW_H
 
#ifndef MAINWINDOW_H
 
#define MAINWINDOW_H
 
#define MAINWINDOW_H
Line 42: Line 44:
  
 
#endif
 
#endif
</code>
+
</syntaxhighlight>
首先,我们在第7行声明了KXmlGuiWindow的一个派生类:<tt>class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow</tt>.
+
First we Subclass KXmlGuiWindow on line 7 with <tt>class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow</tt>.
  
接下来我们声明了一个构造函数<tt>MainWindow(QWidget *parent=0);</tt>.
+
Then we declare the constructor with <tt>MainWindow(QWidget *parent=0);</tt>.
  
最后我们定义了一个指针类型的成员变量,它将被用来指向我们用来构成程序主体的KTextEdit对象。{{class|KTextEdit}}是一个通用的RichText编辑器,并具有很多KDE特有的优点,如光标自动隐藏等。
+
And finally we declare a pointer to the object that will make up the bulk of our program. {{class|KTextEdit}} is a generic richtext editor with some KDE niceties like cursor auto-hiding.
  
 
===mainwindow.cpp===
 
===mainwindow.cpp===
<code cppqt>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp-qt">
 
#include "mainwindow.h"
 
#include "mainwindow.h"
  
 
MainWindow::MainWindow(QWidget *parent) : KXmlGuiWindow(parent)
 
MainWindow::MainWindow(QWidget *parent) : KXmlGuiWindow(parent)
 
{
 
{
   textArea = new KTextEdit;
+
   textArea = new KTextEdit();
 
   setCentralWidget(textArea);
 
   setCentralWidget(textArea);
 
   setupGUI();
 
   setupGUI();
 
}
 
}
</code>
+
</syntaxhighlight>
首先,很自然的,我们在第一行首先声明包含了含有类声明的头文件。
+
First, of course, on line 1 we have to include the header file containing the class declaration.
  
在第五行,我们初始化了一个KTextEdit对象并将它赋给之前定义的成员变量。接下来在第6行,我们调用<tt>KXmlGuiWindow</tt>内置的<tt>setCentralWidget()</tt>函数,它告诉程序应该将什么东西显示在窗口的中央。
+
On line 5, we initialise our text editor with an object. Then on line 6 we use KXmlGuiWindow's built-in setCentralWidget() function which tells the KXmlGuiWindow what should appear in the central section of the window.
  
最终, <tt>KXmlGuiWindow::setupGUI()</tt>被调用,它会替我们完成很多底层的工作,并创建一个缺省的菜单(包含“设置”和“帮助”)
+
Finally, KXmlGuiWindow::setupGUI() is called which does a lot of behind-the-scenes stuff and creates the default menu bars (Settings, Help).
  
 
==Back to main.cpp==
 
==Back to main.cpp==
为了能够实际运行前面定义的窗口, 我们还需要在<tt>main.cpp</tt>中增加一些代码:
+
In order to actually run this window, we need to add a few lines in main.cpp:
 
===main.cpp===
 
===main.cpp===
<code cppqt>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp-qt">
 
#include <KApplication>
 
#include <KApplication>
 
#include <KAboutData>
 
#include <KAboutData>
 
#include <KCmdLineArgs>
 
#include <KCmdLineArgs>
 +
#include <KLocale>
  
 
#include "mainwindow.h"
 
#include "mainwindow.h"
Line 92: Line 95:
 
   return app.exec();
 
   return app.exec();
 
}
 
}
</code>
+
</syntaxhighlight>
与第一讲相比,这里唯一新增加的行就是第18和19行。在第18行,我们生成了一个MainWindow类的对象实例,然后在第19行显示它。
+
The only new lines here (compared to Tutorial 1) are 6, 19 and 20. On line 19, we create our MainWindow object and then on line 20, we display it.
  
 
==CMake==
 
==CMake==
 
The best way to build the program is to use CMake. All that's changed since tutorial 1 is that <tt>mainwindow.cpp</tt> has been added to the sources list and any <tt>tutorial1</tt> has become <tt>tutorial2</tt>.
 
The best way to build the program is to use CMake. All that's changed since tutorial 1 is that <tt>mainwindow.cpp</tt> has been added to the sources list and any <tt>tutorial1</tt> has become <tt>tutorial2</tt>.
 
===CMakeLists.txt===
 
===CMakeLists.txt===
<code ini>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="cmake">
 
project (tutorial2)
 
project (tutorial2)
  
 
find_package(KDE4 REQUIRED)
 
find_package(KDE4 REQUIRED)
include_directories( ${KDE4_INCLUDES} )
+
include_directories(${KDE4_INCLUDES})
  
 
set(tutorial2_SRCS  
 
set(tutorial2_SRCS  
main.cpp
+
  main.cpp
mainwindow.cpp
+
  mainwindow.cpp
 
)
 
)
  
 
kde4_add_executable(tutorial2 ${tutorial2_SRCS})
 
kde4_add_executable(tutorial2 ${tutorial2_SRCS})
target_link_libraries( tutorial2 ${KDE4_KDEUI_LIBS})
+
target_link_libraries(tutorial2 ${KDE4_KDEUI_LIBS})
</code>
+
</syntaxhighlight>
  
=== 编译运行 ===
+
=== Compile and run ===
To compile, link and run it, use:
+
To compile, link and run it, make sure you have [[Getting_Started/Build|set up a correct build environment]] and issue:
cmake . && make && ./tutorial2
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
 +
cmake . && make && ./tutorial2
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
  
== 继续前进 ==
+
==Moving On==
 
Now you can move on to [[Development/Tutorials/Using_KActions|using KActions]].
 
Now you can move on to [[Development/Tutorials/Using_KActions|using KActions]].
  
 
[[Category:C++]]
 
[[Category:C++]]

Latest revision as of 13:53, 13 July 2012

How To Use KXmlGuiWindow
Tutorial Series   Beginner Tutorial
Previous   Tutorial 1 - Hello World
What's Next   Tutorial 3 - KActions and XMLGUI
Further Reading   KXmlGuiWindow

Contents

[edit] Abstract

This tutorial carries on from First Program Tutorial and will introduce the KXmlGuiWindow class.

In the previous tutorial, the program caused a dialog box to pop up but we're going to take steps towards a functioning application.

Introtokdetutorial2.png

[edit] KXmlGuiWindow

KXmlGuiWindow provides a full main window view with menubars, toolbars, a statusbar and a main area in the centre for a large widget. For example the help-menu is predefined. Most KDE applications will derive from this class as it provides an easy way to define menu and toolbar layouts through XML files (this technology is called XMLGUI). While we will not be using XMLGUI in this tutorial, we will use it in the next.

In order to have a useful KXmlGuiWindow, we must subclass it. So we create two files, a mainwindow.cpp and a mainwindow.h which will contain our code.

[edit] mainwindow.h

#ifndef MAINWINDOW_H
#define MAINWINDOW_H
 
#include <KXmlGuiWindow>
#include <KTextEdit>
 
class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow
{
  public:
    MainWindow(QWidget *parent=0);
 
  private:
    KTextEdit* textArea;
};
 
#endif

First we Subclass KXmlGuiWindow on line 7 with class MainWindow : public KXmlGuiWindow.

Then we declare the constructor with MainWindow(QWidget *parent=0);.

And finally we declare a pointer to the object that will make up the bulk of our program. KTextEdit is a generic richtext editor with some KDE niceties like cursor auto-hiding.

[edit] mainwindow.cpp

#include "mainwindow.h"
 
MainWindow::MainWindow(QWidget *parent) : KXmlGuiWindow(parent)
{
  textArea = new KTextEdit();
  setCentralWidget(textArea);
  setupGUI();
}

First, of course, on line 1 we have to include the header file containing the class declaration.

On line 5, we initialise our text editor with an object. Then on line 6 we use KXmlGuiWindow's built-in setCentralWidget() function which tells the KXmlGuiWindow what should appear in the central section of the window.

Finally, KXmlGuiWindow::setupGUI() is called which does a lot of behind-the-scenes stuff and creates the default menu bars (Settings, Help).

[edit] Back to main.cpp

In order to actually run this window, we need to add a few lines in main.cpp:

[edit] main.cpp

#include <KApplication>
#include <KAboutData>
#include <KCmdLineArgs>
#include <KLocale>
 
#include "mainwindow.h"
 
int main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
  KAboutData aboutData( "tutorial2", 0,
      ki18n("Tutorial 2"), "1.0",
      ki18n("A simple text area"),
      KAboutData::License_GPL,
      ki18n("Copyright (c) 2007 Developer") );
  KCmdLineArgs::init( argc, argv, &aboutData );
 
  KApplication app;
 
  MainWindow* window = new MainWindow();
  window->show();
 
  return app.exec();
}

The only new lines here (compared to Tutorial 1) are 6, 19 and 20. On line 19, we create our MainWindow object and then on line 20, we display it.

[edit] CMake

The best way to build the program is to use CMake. All that's changed since tutorial 1 is that mainwindow.cpp has been added to the sources list and any tutorial1 has become tutorial2.

[edit] CMakeLists.txt

project (tutorial2)
 
find_package(KDE4 REQUIRED)
include_directories(${KDE4_INCLUDES})
 
set(tutorial2_SRCS 
  main.cpp
  mainwindow.cpp
)
 
kde4_add_executable(tutorial2 ${tutorial2_SRCS})
target_link_libraries(tutorial2 ${KDE4_KDEUI_LIBS})

[edit] Compile and run

To compile, link and run it, make sure you have set up a correct build environment and issue:

cmake . && make && ./tutorial2

[edit] Moving On

Now you can move on to using KActions.


This page was last modified on 13 July 2012, at 13:53. This page has been accessed 64,358 times. Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 3.0 as well as the GNU Free Documentation License 1.2.
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