Development/Tutorials/Qt4 Ruby Tutorial/Chapter 11

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Development/Tutorials/Qt4 Ruby Tutorial/Chapter 11


Giving It a Shot
Tutorial Series   Qt4 Ruby Tutorial
Previous   Tutorial 10 - Smooth as Silk
What's Next   Tutorial 12 - Hanging in the Air the Way Bricks Don't
Further Reading   n/a

Giving It a Shot

Qt4 Ruby Tutorial Screenshot 11.png

Files:

Overview

In this example we introduce a timer to implement animated shooting.

Line by Line Walkthrough

cannon.rb

The CannonField now has shooting capabilities.

include Math
</code>
 
We include '''<tt>Math</tt>''' because we need the '''<tt>sin()</tt>''' and '''<tt>cos()</tt>''' functions.
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="ruby">
@timerCount = 0
 
@autoShootTimer = Qt::Timer.new(self)
connect(@autoShootTimer, SIGNAL('timeout()'),
         self, SLOT('moveShot()'))
 
@shootAngle = 0
@shootForce = 0
</code>
 
We initialize our new private variables and connect the [http://doc.qt.nokia.com/latest/qtimer.html#timeout Qt::Timer::timeout()] signal to our '''<tt>moveShot()</tt>''' slot. We'll move the shot every time the timer times out.
 
The '''<tt>timerCount</tt>''' keeps track of the time passed since the shot was fired. The '''<tt>shootAngle</tt>''' is the cannon angle and '''<tt>shootForce</tt>''' is the cannon force when the shot was fired.
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="ruby">
def shoot()
  if @autoShootTimer.isActive()
    return
  end;
 
  @timerCount = 0
  @shootAngle = @currentAngle
  @shootForce = @currentForce
  @autoShootTimer.start(5)
end
</code>
 
This function shoots a shot unless a shot is in the air. The '''<tt>timerCount</tt>''' is reset to zero. The '''<tt>shootAngle</tt>''' and '''<tt>shootForce</tt>''' variables are set to the current cannon angle and force. Finally, we start the timer.
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="ruby">
def moveShot()
  region = Qt::Region.new(shotRect())
  @timerCount += 1
 
  shotR = shotRect()
 
  if shotR.x() > width() || shotR.y() > height()
    @autoShootTimer.stop()
  else
    region = region.unite(Qt::Region.new(shotR))
  end
  update(region)
end
</code>
 
'''<tt>moveShot()</tt>''' is the slot that moves the shot, called every 5 milliseconds when the [http://doc.qt.nokia.com/latest/qtimer.html Qt::Timer] fires.
 
Its tasks are to compute the new position, update the screen with the shot in the new position, and if necessary, stop the timer.
 
First we make a [http://doc.qt.nokia.com/latest/qregion.html Qt::Region] that holds the old '''<tt>shotRect()</tt>'''. A [http://doc.qt.nokia.com/latest/qregion.html Qt::Region] is capable of holding any sort of region, and we'll use it here to simplify the painting. '''<tt>shotRect()</tt>''' returns the rectangle where the shot is now. It is explained in detail later.
 
Then we increment the '''<tt>timerCount</tt>''', which has the effect of moving the shot one step along its trajectory.
 
Next we fetch the new shot rectangle.
 
If the shot has moved beyond the right or bottom edge of the widget we stop the timer, or we add the new '''<tt>shotRect()</tt>''' to the [http://doc.qt.nokia.com/latest/qregion.html Qt::Region].
 
Finally, we repaint the [http://doc.qt.nokia.com/latest/qregion.html Qt::Region]. This will send a single paint event for just the one or two rectangles that need updating.
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="ruby">
def paintEvent(event)
  painter = Qt::Painter.new(self)
 
  paintCannon(painter)
  if @autoShootTimer.isActive()
    paintShot(painter)
  end
 
  painter.end()
end
</code>
 
The paint event function has been simplified since the previous chapter. Most of the logic has been moved to the new '''<tt>paintShot()</tt>''' and '''<tt>paintCannon()</tt>''' functions.
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="ruby">
def paintShot(painter)
  painter.setPen(Qt::NoPen)
  painter.setBrush(Qt::Brush.new(Qt::black))
  painter.drawRect(shotRect())
end
</code>
 
This private function paints the shot by drawing a black filled rectangle.
 
We leave out the implementation of '''<tt>paintCannon()</tt>'''; it is the same as the [http://doc.qt.nokia.com/latest/qwidget.html#paintEvent Qt::Widget::paintEvent()] reimplementation from the previous chapter.
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="ruby">
def shotRect()
  gravity = 4.0
 
  time = @timerCount / 20.0
  velocity = @shootForce
  radians = @shootAngle * 3.14159265 / 180.0
 
  velx = velocity * cos(radians)
  vely = velocity * sin(radians)
  x0 = (@barrelRect.right() + 5.0) * cos(radians)
  y0 = (@barrelRect.right() + 5.0) * sin(radians)
  x = x0 + velx * time
  y = y0 + vely * time - 0.5 * gravity * time * time
 
  result = Qt::Rect.new(0, 0, 6, 6)
  result.moveCenter(Qt::Point.new(x.round, height() - 1 - y.round))
  return result
end
</code>
 
This private function calculates the center point of the shot and returns the enclosing rectangle of the shot. It uses the initial cannon force and angle in addition to '''<tt>timerCount</tt>''', which increases as time passes.
 
The formula used is the standard Newtonian formula for frictionless movement in a gravity field. For simplicity, we've chosen to disregard any Einsteinian effects.
 
We calculate the center point in a coordinate system where y coordinates increase upward. After we have calculated the center point, we construct a [http://doc.qt.nokia.com/latest/qrect.html Qt::Rect] with size 6 x 6 and move its center point to the point calculated above. In the same operation we convert the point into the widget's coordinate system (see [http://doc.qt.nokia.com/latest/coordsys.html The Coordinate System]).
 
'''[http://www.darshancomputing.com/qt4-qtruby-tutorial/tutorial/t11/t11.rb t11.rb]'''
 
The only addition is the <strong>Shoot</strong> button.
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="ruby">
shoot = Qt::PushButton.new(tr('&Shoot'))
shoot.setFont(Qt::Font.new('Times', 18, Qt::Font::Bold))
</code>
 
In the constructor we create and set up the <strong>Shoot</strong> button exactly like we did with the <strong>Quit</strong> button.
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="ruby">
connect(shoot, SIGNAL('clicked()'), cannonField, SLOT('shoot()'))
</code>
 
Connects the '''<tt>clicked()</tt>''' signal of the <strong>Shoot</strong> button to the '''<tt>shoot()</tt>''' slot of the '''<tt>CannonField</tt>'''.
 
=== Running the Application ===
The cannon can shoot, but there's nothing to shoot at.
 
=== Exercises ===
Make the shot a filled circle. [Hint: [http://doc.qt.nokia.com/latest/qpainter.html#drawEllipse Qt::Painter::drawEllipse()] may help.]
 
Change the color of the cannon when a shot is in the air.
 
[[Category:Ruby]]

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