Difference between revisions of "Development/Tutorials/Plasma/QML/ActiveSettings"

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(KConfig Bindings)
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</pre>
 
</pre>
 
ConfigModel will sync() the config file 5 seconds after a writeEntry(...) call, or on destruction of the module (for example by loading another module or page into the SettingsItem.
 
ConfigModel will sync() the config file 5 seconds after a writeEntry(...) call, or on destruction of the module (for example by loading another module or page into the SettingsItem.
 +
 +
Functions available are:
 +
* readEntry(key): fetches a stored config value
 +
* writeEntry(key, value): writes a config value
 +
* deleteEntry(key): deletes the stored value, resetting the app behavior to the default.
  
 
If you find yourself needing more advanced features from C++ code, you can extend your settings module using a C++ plugin. Of course you can choose to use both, the already provided KConfig bindings, and an additional plugin.
 
If you find yourself needing more advanced features from C++ code, you can extend your settings module using a C++ plugin. Of course you can choose to use both, the already provided KConfig bindings, and an additional plugin.
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* A QObject based class, which registers one or more additional Object to the declarative runtime:
 
* A QObject based class, which registers one or more additional Object to the declarative runtime:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 +
K_PLUGIN_FACTORY(TimeSettingsFactory, registerPlugin<TimeSettingsPlugin>();)
 +
K_EXPORT_PLUGIN(TimeSettingsFactory("active_settings_time"))
 +
 
TimeSettingsPlugin::TimeSettingsPlugin(QObject *parent, const QVariantList &list)
 
TimeSettingsPlugin::TimeSettingsPlugin(QObject *parent, const QVariantList &list)
 
     : QObject(parent)
 
     : QObject(parent)
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}
 
}
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
The name provided as second argument to K_EXPORT_PLUGIN macro is the one you specify in you metadata.desktop file as X-KDE-Library.
 +
 
* One or more QObject-derived classes which export domain specific settings using QProperties, getters and setters.  
 
* One or more QObject-derived classes which export domain specific settings using QProperties, getters and setters.  
 
<pre>
 
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</pre>
 
</pre>
 
You will typically want to put code for reading the property in the ctor or getter, and code for writing options, or updating other parts of the UI, but of course more complex constructions are also entirely possible, since the settings plugins can basically provide any kind of QML extensions. When writing to configuration files, you should not forget to sync(); your KConfigObject, and to make sure that apps pick up the changed setting, for example by monitoring the configuration file for changes (watch for the "created()" signal, not for the changed signal, as KConfig doesn't directly write to the config file, but to a temorary file and then atomically moves them.) The plugin has minimal build dependencies, so that providing a settings plugin along with your app is very easy.
 
You will typically want to put code for reading the property in the ctor or getter, and code for writing options, or updating other parts of the UI, but of course more complex constructions are also entirely possible, since the settings plugins can basically provide any kind of QML extensions. When writing to configuration files, you should not forget to sync(); your KConfigObject, and to make sure that apps pick up the changed setting, for example by monitoring the configuration file for changes (watch for the "created()" signal, not for the changed signal, as KConfig doesn't directly write to the config file, but to a temorary file and then atomically moves them.) The plugin has minimal build dependencies, so that providing a settings plugin along with your app is very easy.
 +
 +
You can have a look into the [http://quickgit.kde.org/?p=plasma-mobile.git&a=tree&h=d61c20d2697a06205134b9a4361382270068c55e&hb=afaeda27367ca0701efea14c0c292c6079d34882&f=applications/settings/modules modules] directory of Active Settings to get some inspiration, or a functioning base for modules to play around with.

Latest revision as of 17:44, 26 April 2012

This tutorial teaches you how you can load Active settings modules into your app, and create your own modules.

Contents

[edit] Introduction

Active Settings is an app, much like Plasma Desktop's kcmshell that shows and loads configuration modules. These configuration modules are plugins providing a QML package and an optional C++-plugin which exports custom-written configuration objects as QObject to the declarative environment.

You can query available modules using the --list argument to active-settings:

$ active-settings --list
org.kde.active.settings.web             Settings for history, caching, etc.
org.kde.active.settings.configtest      Test Module for the Config Bindings
org.kde.active.settings.time            Settings for timezone and date display

You can load an individual module by supplying its plugin name as argument to active-settings:

active-settings org.kde.active.settings.time

will open the active-settings app and load the "Time and Date" module on startup.

[edit] Architecture

The Active Settings app consists of a number of parts, an Active App, which loads a QML package providing the chrome for active-settings, a set of Declarative components which encapsulate loading settings modules and a set of settings modules, which provide the UI and backend code for a specific settings domain (i.e. Time and Date, Browser settings, etc.).


[edit] Integrating a Settings Module into an App

In order to integrate a settings module "inline" into your app, you can use the SettingsItem component, which comes with the ActiveSettings declarative plugin. SettingsItem provides a PageStack (from PlasmaComponents) with a bit of additional API, the module property. Creating an Item with a settings module is as easy as:


import org.kde.active.settings 0.1 as ActiveSettings
[...]
ActiveSettings.SettingsItem {
    id: webSettingsItem
    module: "org.kde.active.settings.time"
    anchors { ... }
}

In order to speed up loading your app, you will want to lazy-load the settings module. This is very easy by using the PageStack features that SettingsItem encapsulates:

import org.kde.active.settings 0.1 as ActiveSettings
[...]
ActiveSettings.SettingsItem {
    id: settingsItem
    initialPage: someOtherItem
    anchors { [...] }
}

PlasmaComponents.Button {
    // This button toggles the settings item and someOtherPage
    [...]
    onClicked: {
        if (settingsItem.module != "org.kde.active.settings.web") {
            settingsItem.module = "org.kde.active.settings.web"
        } else {
            // Switching back...
            settingsItem.replace(someOtherItem);
        }
    }
}

Item {
    id: someOtherItem
    /* this guy is shown before any module is loaded */
}

[edit] Creating Your Own Settings Module

[edit] Simple, QML-only Module

Writing a basic ActiveSettings configuration module is as simple as creating a Plasma Package, using the X-KDE-ServiceTypes "Active/SettingsModule". The service type registers your package as settings module, so active-settings will find (and list) it, and so it can be loaded using the SettingsItem QML binding. A simple active settings package will look like this:

├── CMakeLists.txt
├── contents
│   └── ui
│       └── Web.qml
└── metadata.desktop

The metadata.desktop file holds the plugin information, which script to load from the plugin initially, and a bunch of metadata, just like normal Plasma Packages. A simple metadata.desktop file will look like this:

[Desktop Entry]
Name=Web and Browser
Comment=Settings for history, caching, etc.
Encoding=UTF-8
Type=Service
Icon=preferences-system-network
X-KDE-ServiceTypes=Active/SettingsModule
X-KDE-PluginInfo-Author=Sebastian Kügler
X-KDE-PluginInfo-Email=sebas@kde.org
X-KDE-PluginInfo-Name=org.kde.active.settings.web
X-KDE-PluginInfo-Version=1.0
X-KDE-PluginInfo-Website=http://plasma-active.org
X-KDE-PluginInfo-Category=Online Services
X-KDE-PluginInfo-License=GPL
X-Plasma-MainScript=ui/Web.qml

The interesting bits, specific to active-settings are the plugin name, the package name and the mainscript. The plugin name is used to find the package, and will translates to the "module" property of SettingsItem. Web.qml points to a normal Item { [...] } in a file, normal rules apply here.

The CMakeLists.txt file takes care of proper installation and will be needed in order to install and package your settings module. It looks like this:

install(DIRECTORY web/ DESTINATION \
    ${DATA_INSTALL_DIR}/plasma/packages/org.kde.active.settings.web)
install(FILES web/metadata.desktop \
    DESTINATION ${SERVICES_INSTALL_DIR} RENAME plasma-package-org.kde.active.settings.web.desktop)

Make sure the names of the .desktop files in CMakeLists.txt are correct, since incorrect names lead to problems finding and loading your package, or even to conflicts between different modules. In case of doubt check active-settings --list for already installed modules. After you installed the plugin (or changed its metadata) you'll need to run "kbuildsycoca4" in order to update the plugin metainformation cache.

[edit] KConfig Bindings

Active Settings provides declarative bindings for KConfigGroup. This means that you can instantiate KConfig objects in your QML code, read and write settings. For many basic use-cases, this provides enough flexibility to do everything that's needed. The browser settings module uses this mechanism:

import org.kde.plasma.components 0.1 as PlasmaComponents
import org.kde.active.settings 0.1 as ActiveSettings

[...]
ActiveSettings.ConfigModel {
    id: adblockConfig
    file: "active-webbrowserrc"
    group: "adblock"
}
[...]
PlasmaComponents.Switch {
    [...]
    onClicked: adblockConfig.writeEntry("adBlockEnabled", checked);
    Component.onCompleted: checked = adblockConfig.readEntry("adBlockEnabled");
}

This corresponds to the following snippet in you active-webbrowserrc config file (for example i ~/.kde4/share/config/):

[adblock]
adBlockEnabled=true

ConfigModel will sync() the config file 5 seconds after a writeEntry(...) call, or on destruction of the module (for example by loading another module or page into the SettingsItem.

Functions available are:

  • readEntry(key): fetches a stored config value
  • writeEntry(key, value): writes a config value
  • deleteEntry(key): deletes the stored value, resetting the app behavior to the default.

If you find yourself needing more advanced features from C++ code, you can extend your settings module using a C++ plugin. Of course you can choose to use both, the already provided KConfig bindings, and an additional plugin.

[edit] Extending your Settings Module with with C++

In some cases, you will find a pure declarative settings module too limited. By extending a settings module with C++ functionality, you can implement functionality in a C++ plugin, which gets automatically loaded with your C++ plugin. This loading is done in the SettingsComponent item provided by the ActiveSettings import. You will usually want to use a SettingsItem in your code, like in the above example. SettingsItem encapsulates the module loading mechanism and provides a PageStack interface. When a new settings module is loaded in the UI (by setting SettingsItem "module" property, the .desktop file is checked for an X-KDE-Library entry (X-KDE-Library=active_settings_time in the Time and Date example).

This loads a small plugin, consisting of two classes:

  • A QObject based class, which registers one or more additional Object to the declarative runtime:
K_PLUGIN_FACTORY(TimeSettingsFactory, registerPlugin<TimeSettingsPlugin>();)
K_EXPORT_PLUGIN(TimeSettingsFactory("active_settings_time"))

TimeSettingsPlugin::TimeSettingsPlugin(QObject *parent, const QVariantList &list)
    : QObject(parent)
{
    qmlRegisterType<TimeSettings>();
    qmlRegisterType<TimeZone>();
    qmlRegisterType<TimeSettings>("org.kde.active.settings", 0, 1, "TimeSettings");
}

The name provided as second argument to K_EXPORT_PLUGIN macro is the one you specify in you metadata.desktop file as X-KDE-Library.

  • One or more QObject-derived classes which export domain specific settings using QProperties, getters and setters.
class TimeSettings : public QObject
{
    Q_OBJECT

    [...]
    Q_PROPERTY(bool twentyFour READ twentyFour WRITE setTwentyFour NOTIFY twentyFourChanged)

    public:
        TimeSettings();
        virtual ~TimeSettings();

        [...]
        bool twentyFour();

    public Q_SLOTS:
        [...]
        void setTwentyFour(bool t);

    Q_SIGNALS:
        [...]
        void twentyFourChanged();

    private:
        TimeSettingsPrivate* d;
};

The types are basically reimplemented QObjects, which expose settings to the QML parts of your settings module. Qt's documentation has more information on how this works exactly.

In your declarative code, you can then import and instantiate these objects.

import org.kde.active.settings 0.1

TimeSettings {
    id: timeSettings
}

[...]

PlasmaComponents.Switch {
    id: twentyFourSwitch
    checked: timeSettings.twentyFour
    onClicked : timeSettings.twentyFour = checked
}

You will typically want to put code for reading the property in the ctor or getter, and code for writing options, or updating other parts of the UI, but of course more complex constructions are also entirely possible, since the settings plugins can basically provide any kind of QML extensions. When writing to configuration files, you should not forget to sync(); your KConfigObject, and to make sure that apps pick up the changed setting, for example by monitoring the configuration file for changes (watch for the "created()" signal, not for the changed signal, as KConfig doesn't directly write to the config file, but to a temorary file and then atomically moves them.) The plugin has minimal build dependencies, so that providing a settings plugin along with your app is very easy.

You can have a look into the modules directory of Active Settings to get some inspiration, or a functioning base for modules to play around with.


This page was last modified on 26 April 2012, at 17:44. This page has been accessed 3,072 times. Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 3.0 as well as the GNU Free Documentation License 1.2.
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