Development/Tutorials/Localization/i18n (de)

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Development/Tutorials/Localization/i18n


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Zusammenfassung

Eine breite Schar an Benutzern und Entwicklern zu erreichen erfordert, dass Ihre Software übersetzt werden kann und sich auch anderweitig an sprachliche und kulturelle Gegebenheiten desjenigen anpassen kann, der Ihre Applikation benutzt. Das ist die Aufgabe von Lokalisation und diese Anleitung leitet Sie durch die grundlegenden Schritte, Ihre Applikation lokalisierungsfähig zu machen.

Was ist Internationalisation and Lokalisation?

Internationalisation, oder i18n ('i', gefolgt von 18 Buchstaben und dann ein 'n'), bezeichnet den Prozess, Ihre Applikation so zu schreiben, dass sie in jeder beliebigen Sprache und Kultur laufen kann. Dabei müssen folgende Dinge berücksichtigt werden:

  • Textmitteilungen, die dem Benutzer mitgeteilt werden
  • Dateneingabe vom Benutzer, Dateien und anderen Quellen
  • Das Format von Datum, Zahlen, Währungen, etc.

Lokalisation, oder l10n ('l' gefolgt von 10 Zeichen und dann ein 'n') ist der Prozess, eine internationalisierte Applikation an bestimmte lokale Gegebenheiten anzupassen.

Im allgemeinen internationalisieren Programmiere ihre Applikationen und Übersetzerteams lokalisieren sie.

Warum ist das wichtig?

KDE development happens primarily in English as this allows the broadest reach into the development and translation communities. However, English is not the primary language of most people on the planet. In fact, fewer than 8% of humanity speaks English and less than 5% speak it as their mother tongue. Even on the Internet, only 35% people who are online use English as their primary language and as more and more of the world gets wired this number is only decreasing. Additionally most languages, including 9 out of the 10 most common languages, use non-ASCII characters in their written form. It is easy to see, then, why it has become a necessity to provide localized software.

As an international project that spans the globe, such localization is a core value within the KDE culture. In fact, while many KDE developers write their software in English they use the desktop in their native locale.

Übersetzbaren Code mit i18n()

To ensure your application is ready to be localized you have to follow a few simple rules. All user-visible strings in your application should be translated before they are displayed on the user's screen, exceptions to this being debugging messages, configuration keys and similar types of text data.

KDE provides the KLocale class as part of libkdecore to facilitate the technical details of localization. KLocale makes it as easy as possible for developers to make their code i18n aware, but there are some things you need to be aware of so that applications are usable in other languages and countries.

Access to a global KLocale object is provided via KGlobal::locale(). This KLocale object is created automatically by KInstance and takes care of all user i18n related settings. It is deleted automatically on application exit.

Translations are made possible by the QString i18n(const char*) method, defined in klocalizedstring.h, which you must wrap all strings that should be displayed in. The QString returned by i18n() is the translated (if necessary) string. This makes creating translatable widgets as simple as in this example:

  1. include <klocalizedstring.h>

[...] QPushButton* myButton = new QPushButton(i18n("Translate this!"));

QString's native Unicode support ensures that all translations are represented correctly. All string handling done by your application should therefore use QString.

Ktip.png
 
Tip
If the string to be translated contains any non-UTF8 characters, use the utf8() method to get a char*.


ki18n

The i18n() method requires that a KInstance (e.g. KApplication) has been created. For any strings that are created prior to this there is another method provided: ki18n(). This allows one to mark strings that should be translated later as such. The ki18n() will return a KLocalizedString, which can be finalized into a QString (i.e. translated for real) after the KInstance has been created, using its toString() method.

ki18n() is typically used for strings given to KAboutData, because it is constructed before the KApplication and you can use i18n() only after the construction of the KApplication. Other than these special cases, it is always safe to use i18n() if you are sure that the code will be executed after construction of KApplication or some other KInstance.

Kontext hinzufügen

There is an extended version of i18n(), i18nc() which takes two const char* arguments. The first argument is an additional contextual description of the second string which will be translated. The first string is used to find the proper corresponding translation at run-time and is shown to translators to help them understand the meaning of the string.

Use i18nc() whenever the purpose of the text might be ambiguous without further context. For example, consider a context menu in a file manager with an entry called "View" which opens a viewer for the currently selected file. In this context "View" is a verb. However, the same application also may have a menu called "View" in the menubar. In that context "View" is a noun. In the English version of the application everything looks fine, but in most other languages one of the two "View" strings will be incorrect.

Additionally, translators sometimes need extra help in understanding what the text is actually referring to during the translation process.

In the file manager example above, one might therefore write:

contextMenu->addAction(i18nc("verb, to view something", "View")); viewMenu->addAction(i18nc("noun, the view", "View"));

Now the two strings will be properly translatable, both by the human translators and at runtime by KLocale.

Use this form of i18n whenever the string to translate is short or the meaning is hard to discern when the context is not exactly known. For example:

QString up = i18nc("Go one directory up in the hierarchy", "Up"); QString relation = i18nc("A person's name and their familial relationship to you.", "%1 is your %2", name, relationship);

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There is also a ki18nc("context","text") method for providing context to strings which are constructed before the KInstance. It returns a KLocalizedString, so use the toString() method afterwards to convert it into a QString.
Anmerkung


Contexts can also be added when building forms in Qt Designer. Each widget label, including tooltips and whatsthis texts, has a "comment" attribute, which will serve the same purpose as first argument to i18nc() call.

Standard Kontext für häufige Ausdrücke

Below is a chart showing some common words and phrases in English and the context that must be used with them to ensure proper translation of them in other languages.

Standard Contexts
Phrase Context i18nc Call Example
Busy Refering to a person i18nc("A person is busy", "Busy")
Busy Refering to a thing i18nc("A thing is busy", "Busy")
Color Color mode, as opposed to Grayscale i18nc("Color mode", "Color")
Creator Refering to a person i18nc("A person who creates", "Creator")
Creator Refering to software i18nc("Software", "Creator")
Display Refering to hardware i18nc("Hardware display", "Display")
Editor Refering to a person i18nc("A person who edits", "Editor")
Editor Refering to software i18nc("Software", "Editor")
Line Refering to drawing i18nc("Draw a line", "Line")
Line Refering to text i18nc("Line of text", "Line")
Name Refering to a name of thing i18nc("A thing's name", "Name") In theme change dialog: i18nc("Theme name", "Name")
Name Refering to first name and last name of person i18nc("Person's first and last name", "Name") In KAddessbook contact edit dialog: i18nc("Person's first and last name", "Name")
No Answer to a question i18nc("Answer to a question", "No")
No Availability of a thing i18nc("Availability", "No")
(Re)load (Re)load a document, medium etc. i18nc("(Re)load a document", "(Re)load")
(Re)load (Re)start a program, daemon etc. i18nc("(Re)start a program", "(Re)load")
Title Refering to a person i18nc("A person's title", "Title")
Title Refering to a thing i18nc("A thing's title", "Title")
Volume Refering to sound i18nc("Sound volume", "Volume")
Volume Refering to a filesystem i18nc("Filesystem volume", "Volume")
Volume Refering to books i18nc("Book volume", "Volume")
Yes Answer to a question i18nc("Answer to a question", "Yes")
Yes Availability of a thing i18nc("Availability", "Yes")

Plural

Plurals are handled differently from language to language. Many languages have different plurals for 2, 10, 20, 100, etc. When the string you want translated refers to more than one item, you must use the third form of i18n, the i18np(). It takes the singular and plural English forms as its first two arguments, followed by any substitution arguments as usual, but at least one of which should be integer-valued. For example:

msgStr = i18np("1 image in album %2", "%1 images in album %2", numImages, albumName);

i18np() gets expanded to as many cases as required by the user's language. In English, this is just two forms while in other languages it may be more, depending on the value of the first integer-valued argument.

Note that this form should be used even if the string always refers to more than one item as some languages use a singular form even when referring to a multiple (typically for 21, 31, etc.). This code:

i18n("%1 files were deleted", numFilesDeleted);

is therefore incorrect and should instead be:

i18np("1 file was deleted",

    "%1 files were deleted",
    numFilesDeleted);

To provide context as well as pluralization, use i18ncp as in this example:

i18ncp("Personal file", "1 file", "%1 files", numFiles);

Datum und Zahlen formatieren

When displaying a number to the user, your program must take care of the decimal separator, thousand separator and currency symbol (if any) being used. These symbols differ from region to region. In English speaking countries a dot (.) is used to separate the fractional part of a number, while in some European countries a comma (,) is used instead. Below is a short summary of functions that will help you format the numbers correctly, taking the local conventions into account for you.

Functions to Format Numbers
Formats a.. From a.. Function Prototype
Number String
QString formatNumber( const QString & numStr )
Number Integer, double
formatNumber( double num, 
              int precision = -1 )
Money String
formatMoney( const QString & numStr )
Money Number
formatMoney( double num, 
             const QString & currency,
             int digits = -1 )
Date String
formatDate( const QDate & pDate,
            bool shortFormat=false )
Time QTime
formatTime( const QTime & pTime, 
            bool includeSecs=false)
Date and time QDateTime
formatDateTime( const QDateTime &pDateTime,
                bool shortFormat = true,
                bool includeSecs = false )

Similar functions exist to read information provided by the user at runtime in their localized format, e.g. readNumber() or readMoney().

Kalender

Developing applications dealing with dates and time, such as calendars, is a very complex area. Not only may the displayed string containing a date or time may look different based on locale, but one also has to take care of other aspects such as:

  • which day in the week is the first one (cf int weekStartDay())
  • how many months in a year there are
  • "era"-based calendars
  • whether to use 24-hour time format (cf bool use12Clock())

KLocale provides, among others, these methods:

Calendar Data Functions
Formats a.. From a.. Function Prototype
Date QDate
formatDate( const QDate & pDate,
            bool shortFormat=false )
Time QTime
formatTime( const QTime & pTime,
            bool includeSecs=false )
Date and time QDateTime
formatDateTime( const QDateTime &pDateTime,
                bool shortFormat=true,
                bool includeSecs=false )
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Dieser Abschnitt muss verbessert werden: Bitte hilf mit, verwirrende Abschnitte zu bereinigen und Abschnitte zu reparieren die ein todo beinhalten


Mehr Informationen für verschiedene Kalendersysteme geben
Warnung



Häufige Fallen vermeiden

There are a number of common problems that may prevent an application being properly localized. See Avoiding Common Localization Pitfalls to learn more about them, and how to avoid them.

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Dank geht an Lukáš Tinkl, Matthias Kiefer und Gary Cramblitt für die Originalversion dieser Anleitung.
Anmerkung

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