Difference between revisions of "Development/Tutorials/Git/Basics"

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First, you should tell Git your name and email address. These information will be shown in the log and in commits. Also, you should allow color in Git. There are other color-related features, but this tutorial is just about basics.
 
First, you should tell Git your name and email address. These information will be shown in the log and in commits. Also, you should allow color in Git. There are other color-related features, but this tutorial is just about basics.
  
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git config --global user.name "Your Name"
 
git config --global user.name "Your Name"
 
git config --global user.email you@example.com
 
git config --global user.email you@example.com
 
git config --global color.ui true
 
git config --global color.ui true
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In case you experience problems with colors you should test adding the following to your ~/.bashrc. The 'R' is the important part here.
 
In case you experience problems with colors you should test adding the following to your ~/.bashrc. The 'R' is the important part here.
  
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# R needed for git colours
 
# R needed for git colours
 
export LESS="-RIM"
 
export LESS="-RIM"
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== First steps with Git ==
 
== First steps with Git ==
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Now we will check the status of the repository. Git will list one untracked file, that means the file has not yet been added to the repository.
 
Now we will check the status of the repository. Git will list one untracked file, that means the file has not yet been added to the repository.
  
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carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git status
 
carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git status
 
# On branch master
 
# On branch master

Revision as of 02:39, 2 November 2009

This tutorial will show you the basics for Git.

Contents

Setting up Git

First, you should tell Git your name and email address. These information will be shown in the log and in commits. Also, you should allow color in Git. There are other color-related features, but this tutorial is just about basics.

git config --global user.name "Your Name" git config --global user.email you@example.com git config --global color.ui true

In case you experience problems with colors you should test adding the following to your ~/.bashrc. The 'R' is the important part here.

  1. R needed for git colours

export LESS="-RIM"

First steps with Git

There are two ways to get started with Git for KDE. If you're only wanting to get code to try it out, you can use the following commands:

git clone <REPOSITORY URL>

This creates a local copy of the upstream repository. Now change into that directory and code away. When you want to update:

git pull

Later, if you want to create a new Git repository and add files to it, try the preceeding commands:

carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git init Initialized empty Git repository in .git/ carsten@moinmoin:~/git> echo "Test content" > testfile

Now we will check the status of the repository. Git will list one untracked file, that means the file has not yet been added to the repository.

carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git status

  1. On branch master
  2. Initial commit
  3. Untracked files:
  4. (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)
  5. testfile

nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track)

In the next three commands the file 'testfile' will be added and commited. Then Git will check the status again.

carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git add testfile carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git commit -m "This is the first commit" Created initial commit 246d7aa: This is the first commit

1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 testfile

carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git status

  1. On branch master

nothing to commit (working directory clean)

Ok, as you can see the file has been commited. Now let's see what we change the contents of the file:

carsten@moinmoin:~/git> echo "new content" > testfile carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git status

  1. On branch master
  2. Changed but not updated:
  3. (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed)
  4. modified: testfile

no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a") carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git commit -a -m "Second commit" Created commit 14a9802: Second commit

1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)

You see that Git noticed the changes in the file. "git commit -a" commits all changes in the repository. Note: This command does not add newly created files.

Branches and merging are cheap in Git

git branch shows you the branches of the repository, the one with the '*' is the active one. So let us create a new branch called "bugfix-branch" and assume we want to fix a branch there. After this fix (in this case the new file) we will merge back all the hard work into the master branch.

carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git branch

  • master

carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git branch bugfix-branch carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git checkout bugfix-branch Switched to branch "bugfix-branch" carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git branch

  • bugfix-branch
 master

carsten@moinmoin:~/git> echo "a second file" > newfile carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git commit -a

  1. On branch bugfix-branch
  2. Untracked files:
  3. (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)
  4. newfile

nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track) carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git add newfile carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git commit Created commit 3264357: This file is here for a demonstration of Gits branch- and merge feature

1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 newfile

Ok, the bug is fixed now. Next step: Checkout the master branch and merge the two branches:

carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git checkout master Switched to branch "master" carsten@moinmoin:~/git> ls testfile carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git merge bugfix-branch Updating 14a9802..3264357 Fast forward

newfile |    1 +
1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 newfile

carsten@moinmoin:~/git> ls newfile testfile

If you would have edited "testfile" in the bugfix-branch, then git would automatically try to merge the contents of "testfile" in the bugfix-branch with the contents of "testfile" in the master branch. Sometimes this can cause a merge conflict. In that case you have to manually edit the "testfile" in the master branch, and afterwards you do a "git commit -a" to complete the merge. Git indicates the conflicting lines in the file itself.

Lets now have a look at the log of the testfile

carsten@moinmoin:~/git> git log testfile commit 14a9802e249413003d1fa40002baa025aa54c75f Author: Carsten Niehaus <carsten@moinmoin.site> Date: Fri Apr 18 18:07:18 2008 +0200

   Second commit

commit 246d7aad05139314e7ff62a5becb6c930f72fb8f Author: Carsten Niehaus <carsten@moinmoin.site> Date: Fri Apr 18 18:06:33 2008 +0200

   This is the first commit

Handling local changes

git-svn cannot sync with SVN when you have local, uncommited changes. For that you are using git stash. That command move the local changes on a stack so that you can sync. After the sync you re-apply them to you Git tree and clear the stack. Very handy feature in many situations! Just do this:

git stash git svn rebase git stash apply git stash clear

If you have local changes which you would like to revert use the following command. It will revert all local, uncommited changes.

git checkout -f


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